The Managua Protocol on Disarmament

Country/entity
Nicaragua
Region
Americas
Agreement name
The Managua Protocol on Disarmament
Date
30/05/1990
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Nicaraguan Revolution (1978 - 1979) and Sandinista/Contra War (1981 – 1990)
The Nicaraguan Revolution was launched in 1978 by the left-leaning Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN) and aimed at overthrowing the dictatorship of Anastasio Somoza. Although initially successful at overthrowing the regime in 1979, the Sandinistas faced growing a back-lash from the U.S.-backed right-wing Contras. Resistance also came from ethnic minorities along the Mosquito Coast. The following civil war was marked by mass human rights atrocities on both sides, with mass disappearances of those placed in state-custody, and mass rape and murder by rebels to ensure local complacency. The war eventually came to an end in 1990 when the FSLN peacefully transferred power after losing the 1990 election.

Nicaraguan Revolution (1978 - 1979) and Sandinista/Contra War (1981 – 1990) )
Stage
Ceasefire/related (Related)
Conflict nature
Government
Peace process
32: Nicaragua contra process
Parties
President of the Republic, Resistance Forces
Third parties
Nicaraguan Cardinal Miguel Obando y Bravo
Description
Agreement detailing demobilization and reintegration of Nicaraguan resistance forces and treatment of their families to certain designted 'development' areas; Govt undertaking to appoint reps of the demobilized combatants to the relevant Ministries and to allow them to participate in local government. Provides for possibility of the resistance to become a political party.

Agreement document
NI_900530_Managua Protocol on Disarmament.pdf

Main category
Page 4, 1.d. The resistance is urged to submit immediately a list of widows and orphans, so that the Nicaraguan Social Security and Welfare Institute can include them in its budget and they can receive the monthly pensions to which they are entitled.

Page 2, 10.
In compliance with the Toncontin Agreement and its addendum, the resistance hereby ratifies its undertaking to demobilise and lay down its arms by 10 June 1990 at the latest. To that end, the resistance undertakes to demobilize at least 100 combatants each day in each zone as from this date. Furthermore, in honour of Mother's Day, a considerable number of the combatants of the Nicaraguan resistance shall be demobilized.

Women, girls and gender

Participation
No specific mention.
Equality
Social equality
Page 4, Article 1
d. The resistance is urged to submit immediately a list of widows and orphans, so that the Nicaraguan Social Security and Welfare Institute can include them in its budget and they can receive the monthly pensions to which they are entitled.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
No specific mention.
Transitional justice
Past and gender
Page 4, Article 1.
d. The resistance is urged to submit immediately a list of widows and orphans, so that the Nicaraguan Social Security and Welfare Institute can include them in its budget and they can receive the monthly pensions to which they are entitled.
Institutional reform
DDR, army, parastatal or rebel forces
Article 10
In compliance with the Toncontin Agreement and its addendum, the resistance hereby ratifies its undertaking to demobilise and lay down its arms by 10 June 1990 at the latest. To that end, the resistance undertakes to demobilize at least 100 combatants each day in each zone as from this date. Furthermore, in honour of Mother's Day, a considerable number of the combatants of the Nicaraguan resistance shall be demobilized.
Development
No specific mention.
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh