The Toncontin Agreement

Country/entity
Nicaragua
Region
Americas
Agreement name
The Toncontin Agreement
Date
23/03/1990
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Nicaraguan Revolution (1978 - 1979) and Sandinista/Contra War (1981 – 1990)
The Nicaraguan Revolution was launched in 1978 by the left-leaning Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN) and aimed at overthrowing the dictatorship of Anastasio Somoza. Although initially successful at overthrowing the regime in 1979, the Sandinistas faced growing a back-lash from the U.S.-backed right-wing Contras. Resistance also came from ethnic minorities along the Mosquito Coast. The following civil war was marked by mass human rights atrocities on both sides, with mass disappearances of those placed in state-custody, and mass rape and murder by rebels to ensure local complacency. The war eventually came to an end in 1990 when the FSLN peacefully transferred power after losing the 1990 election.

Nicaraguan Revolution (1978 - 1979) and Sandinista/Contra War (1981 – 1990) )
Stage
Ceasefire/related (Mixed)
Conflict nature
Government
Peace process
32: Nicaragua contra process
Parties
President Elect Mrs Violeta Barrios de Chamorro, Nicaraguan Resistance
Third parties
Most Reverend Cardinal Miguel Obando Bravo
Description
Resistance forces recognize the results of free elections and commits to demobilizing; parties agree a ceasefire; parties requesting cooperation of intl bodies such as ONUCA and Comisión Internacional de Apoyo y Verificación (CIAV), and Most Reverend Miguel Obando y Bravo

Agreement document
NI_00323_Toncontin Agreement.pdf

Main category
Page 2,
In turn, the delegation representing the President Elect, Mrs. Violeta Barrios de Chamorro, states the following:
[...]
Second. As an expression of just recognition of the patriotic work of the Nicaraguan resistance, it is necessary to assist the injured orphans and widows, the innocent victims of the armed struggle. To that end it undertakes to take measures to ensure the rehabilitation and social reintegration of those affected as soon as Mrs. Violeta Barrios de Chamorro assumes office. They will also be entitled to the corresponding monthly pensions.
[...]

Women, girls and gender

Participation
No specific mention.
Equality
No specific mention.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
No specific mention.
Transitional justice
Past and gender
Page 2
Second. As an expression of just recognition of the patriotic work of the Nicaraguan resistance, it is necessary to assist the injured orphans and widows, the innocent victims of the armed struggle. To that end it undertakes to take measures to ensure the rehabilitation and social reintegration of those affected as soon as Mrs. Violeta Barrios de Chamorro assumes office. They will also be entitled to the corresponding monthly pensions.
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
Development
Rehabilitation and reconstruction
Page 2
Second. As an expression of just recognition of the patriotic work of the Nicaraguan resistance, it is necessary to assist the injured orphans and widows, the innocent victims of the armed struggle. To that end it undertakes to take measures to ensure the rehabilitation and social reintegration of those affected as soon as Mrs. Violeta Barrios de Chamorro assumes office. They will also be entitled to the corresponding monthly pensions.
Implementation
Other
Page 2, In turn, the delegation representing the President Elect, Mrs. Violeta Barrios de Chamorro, states the following:
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh