Humanitarian Ceasefire Agreement on the Conflict in Darfur

Country/entity
Sudan
Darfur
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Humanitarian Ceasefire Agreement on the Conflict in Darfur
Date
08/04/2004
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Sudan Conflicts (1955 - )
Agreements relate to several distinct dyads, and also the negotiated independence of South Sudan, and subsequent internal conflict in South Sudan. Sudan-South Sudan. The long-standing conflict between the north and the south of the country dates back to colonial times, where the British introduced a so-called ‘Southern Policy’, severely hampering population movements between these big regions. Immediately after gaining independence in 1956, southern movements started to fight for independence; this fight became professionalised in 1983 with the foundation of the soon internationally supported Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA). When the Islamic Front government introduced strict sharia laws in the south after it took over power in 1988 the war intensified. A decade later, the military situation reached a stalemate, enabling internationally facilitated peace negotiations to begin in 1997. After more fighting, a final negotiation push began in 2002, leading to the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Areement (CPA) in January 2005.

Sudan-South Sudan post referendum. South Sudan became independent in July 2011; since then, relations between the two countries are complicated and violent conflict led by the SPLM (North) in the Sudanese Nuba mountains region has since intensified.

Darfur. Other long-standing violent conflicts are in the east and the west of the country. In the east, the Beja Congress, established in 1957, is the spearhead of a currently ‘peaceful’ opposition movement. In the west, the violent conflict in Darfur intensified in the early 2000s and rapidly gained international attention, even resulting in genocide charges against leading figures of the Sudanese government. The situation on the ground is complex, with over a dozen organisations (most notably the Sudanese Liberation Movement and the Justice and Equality Movement) fighting the Sudanese government and allied groups like the Janjaweed – although all parties have switched sides on numerous occasions. Several mediation attempts have not been successful, due to the shaky commitment of the Sudanese central government and the distrust among the armed opposition.

South Sudan- internal. Post independence, conflict broke out between groups in South Sudan and agreements were reached addressing this conflict.

Sudan Conflicts (1955 - ) )
Stage
Ceasefire/related (Ceasefire)
Conflict nature
Government/territory
Peace process
24: Darfur-Sudan peace process
Parties
For the Sudan Liberation Movement/Army (SLM/A): Mini Arkou Minawi, Secretary General; For the Government of the Sudan (GOS): Acherif Ahmad Oumar Badour, Minister for Investment; For the Sudanese Justice and Equality Movement (SJEM): Nasradine Hussein Diffallah, President
Third parties
[Note: Preamble also mentions that agreement was under the auspices of Idriss Deby, President of the Republic of Chad assisted by the Chairperson of the Commission of the African Union]

For the Tchadian Mediation: Nagoum Yamassoum, Minister of State, Minstry of Foreign Affairs and African Integration; For the African Union: Sam B. Ibok, Representative of the Chairperson of the Commission; Mahamat Saleh Hamid, Deputy Secretary General
Description
An agreement by the parties to establish a temporary cessation of hostilities, and to commit to future dialogue to achieve a sustainable settlement for Darfur. Appendix incorporates Protocol on Establishing a Humanitarian Assistance in Darfur, with supporting principles and specific provisions regarding the humanitarian assistance. The Agreement and its Appendix are later incorporated into the Darfur Peace Agreement.

Agreement document
SD_040408_Humanitarian Ceasefire Agmt on Darfur.pdf

Main category
Page 5, (Attached Appendix) Protocol on Establishing Humanitarian Assistance in Darfur
Article 2: Impartiality Principle - Humanitarian assistance is provided regardless of ethnic origin, gender, nationality opinions, race or religions. Assistance to victims will be guided only by urgent distress cases.

Women, girls and gender

Participation
No specific mention.
Equality
No specific mention.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
Protection (general)
Page 5, (Attached Appendix) Protocol on Establishing Humanitarian Assistance in Darfur Article 2: Impartiality Principle - Humanitarian assistance is provided regardless of ethnic origin, gender, nationality opinions, race or religions. Assistance to victims will be guided only by urgent distress cases
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
Development
No specific mention.
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh