Agreement on Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration, Juba, Sudan

Country/entity
Uganda
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Agreement on Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration, Juba, Sudan
Date
29/02/2008
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Ugandan Conflicts (1970 - )
Uganda has long experienced tensions along ethnic, religious and national lines. On independence in 1962, Ugandan politics were defined by smaller monarchies, among which the Southern Kingdom of Buganda dominated the national sphere. Resistance to this system was the campaign platform of the Uganda People’s Congress (UPC) led by Milton Obote, who won the 1962 elections. Tension between the Buganda’s ruler King Mutesa II and Obote with his then-ally Idi Amin, led to Obote changing the constitution, abolishing the monarchic system and thus, centralizing power. However, a split between Obote and Amin eventually led to a military coup d’état in 1970, which brought Amin the presidency where he instituted his genocidal regime.

Despite economic collapse, President Amin was only removed from power following a failed attempt at invading Tanzania in 1979, whereby the Tanzanian counter-attack alongside forces loyal to former-President Obote toppled Amin. Authoritarianism continued under the new regime, after Obote won the 1980 elections under dubious circumstances, and in 1985, Obote was once again deposed in a coup. Out of the fray, Yoweri Museveni and the National Resistance Army (NRA) captured the presidency in 1986 and began instituting economic and democratic reforms.

Resistance to Museveni, however, continued with various insurgencies across the country including by former-supporters of President Obote or President Amin. Other insurgencies based on chiliastic beliefs based on the return of Jesus Christ, most notably the Holy Spirit Movement, fought in the late 1980s before splintering into several smaller factions. One such faction later became the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) led by Joseph Kony. Many of the 22 or more insurgency groups estimated to contain more than 40,000 insurgents, operate from across the Ugandan border and are based in either South Sudan or the Democratic Republic of Congo.

Ugandan Conflicts (1970 - ) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - partial (Core issue)
Conflict nature
Government
Peace process
135: Uganda peace process
Parties
Hon. Ruhakana Rugunda (Dr) Minister of Internal Affairs and Head of GoU Delegation.

Dr David Nyekorach Matsanga, Leader of the LRA/M Delegation.
Third parties
Witnessed by:

H.E. Lt. General Riek Machar Teny-Dhurgon (PhD), Vice President, Government of Southern Sudan and Chief Mediator of the Peace Talks.

H.E. Joaquim Alberto Chissano, United Nations Special Envoy of the Secretary-General for the LRA affected areas.

H.E. Andre M Kapanga (PhD), for the Government of the Democratic Republic of Congo.

H.E. Japeth R. Getugi, for the Government of the Republic of Kenya.

H.E. Nsavike G. Ndatta, for the Government of the United Republic of Tanzania.

L.t Gen. (Rtd.) Gilbert Lebeko Ramano, for the Government of the Republic of South Africa.

H.E. Heidi Johansen, for the Government of Norway.

Mr Roeland van de Geer, EU Special Representative for the Great Lakes Region

H.E. Bryan E. Burton, for the Government of Canda

Mr Timothy R. Shortley, Senior Advisor to the Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs, for the Government of the United States of America.
Description
The Agreement on Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR) provides for the implementation process in accordance with the Implementation Schedule of the Final Peace Agreement. This process must be carried out in conformity with UN IDDRS. The agreement entails special provisions for children, youth and women and provides for the implementation of repatriation and reception process. The Ceasefire monitoring team (CMT) will be responsible for its implementation.

Agreement document
UG_080229_Agreement on DDR.pdf

Main category
Page 2, Chapter 1. Definitions
"Gender" refers to the two sexes, men and women, within the context of society.

Page 3, Chapter 2. THE DISARMAMENT, DEMOBILISATION AND REINTEGRATION (DDR) PROCESS,

2.2. The Government shall adapt its Reintegration Policy to be consistent with this Agreement. The Policy shall:
(c) cover gender mainstreaming as well as women and girl specific aspects of reintegration programming;

Page 4, Commitments of the GoU
2.9. To provide reintegration support that emphasises educational and livelihood opportunities, and gives particular attention to the situation and needs of girls and young mothers.

Page 4, Commitment of the LRA/M
2.11.To ensure the earliest release and repatriation to Uganda of pregnant and lactating women along with all children under 18 years of age.

Page 4, Commitment of both Parties

2.12. Any person identified in the adult disarmament and demobilisation process to be under 18 years of age (other than children accompanying their mothers) will be immediately referred to the agencies implementing the removal and reintegration program for children.

Page 5, Women

2.14. The Parties shall ensure that the DDR process fully incorporates the special rights and needs of women. In particular, Security Council Resolution 1325 on Women, Peace and Security (2000) and clauses 10 and 11 of the Agreement on Accountability and Reconciliation shall be observed.

2.15. As far as possible funding for specific measures for women and girls in the reintegration phase of the DDR process shall be earmarked for that purpose.

Page 5, 3. CEASEFIRE MONITORING TEAM

3.2. The CMT shall monitor the implementation of specific clauses on children, women and persons with special needs contained in this Agreement.
3.3. The CMT shall include female members.

Page 6, 5. DEMOBILISATION

5.4. The CMT shall draw on UN DDR, World Bank and other technical expertise to make further arrangements for:
(b) gender specific measures for implementing the principles set out in clause 2.1 of this Agreement;
(c)protection from sexual violence or abuse, appropriate services for pregnant women and lactating mothers, and adequate presence of female staff;

Page 6, 6. REPATRIATION AND RECEPTION

6.3. In the repatriation and reception process, consideration will be given to the special needs of children, women and non-combatants. Separate transitional accommodation will be provided for men, women and children.

Women, girls and gender

Participation
No specific mention.
Equality
No specific mention.
Particular groups of women
Pregnancy/maternity
Page 3, Chapter 2. THE DISARMAMENT, DEMOBILISATION AND REINTEGRATION (DDR) PROCESS, Page 4, Commitments of the GoU
2.9. To provide reintegration support that emphasises educational and livelihood opportunities, and gives particular attention to the situation and needs of girls and young mothers.

Page 4, Commitment of the LRA/M 2.11.To ensure the earliest release and repatriation to Uganda of pregnant and lactating women along with all children under 18 years of age.

Page 6, 5. DEMOBILISATION 5.4. The CMT shall draw on UN DDR, World Bank and other technical expertise to make further arrangements for: (b) gender specific measures for implementing the principles set out in clause 2.1 of this Agreement; (c)protection from sexual violence or abuse, appropriate services for pregnant women and lactating mothers, and adequate presence of female staff;

Page 20-21, CHAPTER II, ARTICLE 10 67. The DRA Executive Organ shall consist of the following: x. Minister of Social Affairs, Maternity and Childhood Care - Member
International law
References to UNSC 1325 itself
Page 5, Chapter 2. THE DISARMAMENT, DEMOBILISATION AND REINTEGRATION (DDR) PROCESS, Women: 2.14.
The Parties shall ensure that the DDR process fully incorporates the special rights and needs of women. In particular, Security Council Resolution 1325 on Women, Peace and Security (2000) and clauses 10 and 11 of the Agreement on Accountability and Reconciliation shall be observed.
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
Sexual violence
Page 6, Chapter 5. DEMOBILISATION: 5.4.
The CMT shall draw on UN DDR, World Bank and other technical expertise to make further arrangements for:
...b) gender specific measures for implementing the principles set out in clause 2.1 of this Agreement;
(c) protection from sexual violence or abuse, appropriate services for pregnant women and lactating mothers, and adequate presence of female staff;
Transitional justice
Prisons, prisoner release
Page 4, Commitment of the LRA/M
2.11.To ensure the earliest release and repatriation to Uganda of pregnant and lactating women along with all children under 18 years of age.
Institutional reform
DDR, army, parastatal or rebel forces
Page 3, Chapter 2. THE DISARMAMENT, DEMOBILISATION AND REINTEGRATION (DDR) PROCESS: 2.2.
The Government shall adapt its Reintegration Policy to be consistent with this Agreement. The Policy shall:
(c) cover gender mainstreaming as well as women and girl specific aspects of reintegration programming;

Page 4, Chapter 2. THE DISARMAMENT, DEMOBILISATION AND REINTEGRATION (DDR) PROCESS, Commitments of the GoU: 2.9.
To provide reintegration support that emphasises educational and livelihood opportunities, and gives particular attention to the situation and needs of girls and young mothers.

Page 4, Chapter 2. THE DISARMAMENT, DEMOBILISATION AND REINTEGRATION (DDR) PROCESS, Commitment of the LRA/M: 2.11.
To ensure the earliest release and repatriation to Uganda of pregnant and lactating women along with all children under 18 years of age.

Page 4, Chapter 2. THE DISARMAMENT, DEMOBILISATION AND REINTEGRATION (DDR) PROCESS, Commitment of both Parties: 2.12. Any person identified in the adult disarmament and demobilisation process to be under 18 years of age (other than children accompanying their mothers) will be immediately referred to the agencies implementing the removal and reintegration program for children.

Page 5, Chapter 2. THE DISARMAMENT, DEMOBILISATION AND REINTEGRATION (DDR) PROCESS, Women: 2.14.
The Parties shall ensure that the DDR process fully incorporates the special rights and needs of women. In particular, Security Council Resolution 1325 on Women, Peace and Security (2000) and clauses 10 and 11 of the Agreement on Accountability and Reconciliation shall be observed.

Page 5, Chapter 2. THE DISARMAMENT, DEMOBILISATION AND REINTEGRATION (DDR) PROCESS, Women: 2.15.
As far as possible funding for specific measures for women and girls in the reintegration phase of the DDR process shall be earmarked for that purpose.

Page 5, Chapter 3. CEASEFIRE MONITORING TEAM: 3.2.
The CMT shall monitor the implementation of specific clauses on children, women and persons with special needs contained in this Agreement.

Page 6, Chapter 5. DEMOBILISATION: 5.4.
The CMT shall draw on UN DDR, World Bank and other technical expertise to make further arrangements for:
...(b) gender specific measures for implementing the principles set out in clause 2.1 of this Agreement;
...(c) protection from sexual violence or abuse, appropriate services for pregnant women and lactating mothers, and adequate presence of female staff;

Page 6, Chapter 6. REPATRIATION AND RECEPTION: 6.3.
In the repatriation and reception process, consideration will be given to the special needs of children, women and non-combatants. Separate transitional accommodation will be provided for men, women and children.
Development
Education
Page 4, Chapter 2. THE DISARMAMENT, DEMOBILISATION AND REINTEGRATION (DDR) PROCESS, Commitments of the GoU: 2.9.
To provide reintegration support that emphasises educational and livelihood opportunities, and gives particular attention to the situation and needs of girls and young mothers.
Implementation
Women's role and consideration in implementation of the agreement
Page 5, Chapter 3. CEASEFIRE MONITORING TEAM: 3.2.
The CMT shall monitor the implementation of specific clauses on children, women and persons with special needs contained in this Agreement.

Page 5, Chapter 3. CEASEFIRE MONITORING TEAM: 3.3.
The CMT shall include female members.
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh