Agreement on a Permanent Ceasefire

Country/entity
Uganda
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Agreement on a Permanent Ceasefire
Date
23/02/2008
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Ugandan Conflicts (1970 - )
Uganda has long experienced tensions along ethnic, religious and national lines. On independence in 1962, Ugandan politics were defined by smaller monarchies, among which the Southern Kingdom of Buganda dominated the national sphere. Resistance to this system was the campaign platform of the Uganda People’s Congress (UPC) led by Milton Obote, who won the 1962 elections. Tension between the Buganda’s ruler King Mutesa II and Obote with his then-ally Idi Amin, led to Obote changing the constitution, abolishing the monarchic system and thus, centralizing power. However, a split between Obote and Amin eventually led to a military coup d’état in 1970, which brought Amin the presidency where he instituted his genocidal regime.

Despite economic collapse, President Amin was only removed from power following a failed attempt at invading Tanzania in 1979, whereby the Tanzanian counter-attack alongside forces loyal to former-President Obote toppled Amin. Authoritarianism continued under the new regime, after Obote won the 1980 elections under dubious circumstances, and in 1985, Obote was once again deposed in a coup. Out of the fray, Yoweri Museveni and the National Resistance Army (NRA) captured the presidency in 1986 and began instituting economic and democratic reforms.

Resistance to Museveni, however, continued with various insurgencies across the country including by former-supporters of President Obote or President Amin. Other insurgencies based on chiliastic beliefs based on the return of Jesus Christ, most notably the Holy Spirit Movement, fought in the late 1980s before splintering into several smaller factions. One such faction later became the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) led by Joseph Kony. Many of the 22 or more insurgency groups estimated to contain more than 40,000 insurgents, operate from across the Ugandan border and are based in either South Sudan or the Democratic Republic of Congo.

Ugandan Conflicts (1970 - ) )
Stage
Ceasefire/related (Ceasefire)
Conflict nature
Government
Peace process
135: Uganda peace process
Parties
Hon. Ruhakana Rugunda (Dr) Minister of Internal Affaris and Head of GoU Delegation.

Dr David Nyekorach Matsanga, Leader of the LRA/M Delegation.
Third parties
Witnessed by:

H.E. Lt. General Riek Machar Teny-Dhurgon (PhD), Vice President, Government of Southern Sudan and Chief Mediator of the Peace Talks.

H.E. Joaquim Alberto Chissano, United Nations Special Envoy of the Secretary-General for the LRA affected areas.

H.E. Andre M Kapanga (PhD), for the Government of the Democratic Republic of Congo.

H.E. Japeth R. Getugi, for the Government of the Republic of Kenya.

H.E. Nsavike G. Ndatta, for the Government of the United Republic of Tanzania.

L.t Gen. (Rtd.) Gilbert Lebeko Raman, for the Government of the Republic of South Africa.

H.E. Heidi Johansen, for the Government of Norway.

Ms Anna Sundstrom, Political Advisor to the EU Special Representative for the Great Lakes Region, for the European Union.

H.E. Bryan E. Burton, for the Government of Canda

Mr Timothy R. Shortley, Senior Advisor to the Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs, for the Government of the United States of America.
Description
In this agreement the Government of the Republic of Uganda and the Lord's Resistance Army/Movement (LRA/M) agreed to a permanent ceasefire ending all hostilities and violent acts. The ceasefire agreement delineates responsibilities of the Government of Uganda, LRA/M and the Government of Sudan, and provides a clear monitoring mechanism. It also provides for measures to be taken in case of violations and lists acts that would constitute violation of the ceasefire.

Agreement document
UG_080223_Agreement on Permanent Ceasefire.pdf

Main category
Chapter 1 Definitions:
"Gender" refers to the two sexes, men and women, within the context of society.

Chapter 3 ASSEMBLY AND ENCAMPMENT

3.3. In the preparation of detailed agreements and arrangements for disarmament , demobilisation and reintegration, the implementation of measures necessary to adhere to gender and child specific UN IDDRS standards for encampment shall be given the highest priority.

Chapter 6 RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE GOVERNMENT OF SOUTHERN SUDAN

6.1 (b) in the implementation of this Agreement , international standards and mandates, in particular, relevant mandates in Security Council Resolution 1325 on Women, Peace and Security (2000), and Security Council Resolution 1612 on Children and Armed Conflict (2005) are applied

Women, girls and gender

Participation
No specific mention.
Equality
Other
Page 2, Chapter 1. Definitions: "Gender" refers to the two sexes, men and women, within the context of society
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
References to UNSC 1325 itself
Page 6, Chapter 6 RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE GOVERNMENT OF SOUTHERN SUDAN, 6.1
...
(b) in the implementation of this Agreement , international standards and mandates, in particular, relevant mandates in Security Council Resolution 1325 on Women, Peace and Security (2000), and Security Council Resolution 1612 on Children and Armed Conflict (2005) are applied
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
No specific mention.
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
DDR, army, parastatal or rebel forces
Page 3, Chapter 3 ASSEMBLY AND ENCAMPMENT: 3.3.
In the preparation of detailed agreements and arrangements for disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration, the implementation of measures necessary to adhere to gender and child specific UN IDDRS standards for encampment shall be given the highest priority.
Development
No specific mention.
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other

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