Chairman's Conclusions from the Arusha Consultations

Country/entity
Sudan
Darfur
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Chairman's Conclusions from the Arusha Consultations
Date
06/08/2007
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Sudan Conflicts (1955 - )
Agreements relate to several distinct dyads, and also the negotiated independence of South Sudan, and subsequent internal conflict in South Sudan. Sudan-South Sudan. The long-standing conflict between the north and the south of the country dates back to colonial times, where the British introduced a so-called ‘Southern Policy’, severely hampering population movements between these big regions. Immediately after gaining independence in 1956, southern movements started to fight for independence; this fight became professionalised in 1983 with the foundation of the soon internationally supported Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA). When the Islamic Front government introduced strict sharia laws in the south after it took over power in 1988 the war intensified. A decade later, the military situation reached a stalemate, enabling internationally facilitated peace negotiations to begin in 1997. After more fighting, a final negotiation push began in 2002, leading to the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Areement (CPA) in January 2005.

Sudan-South Sudan post referendum. South Sudan became independent in July 2011; since then, relations between the two countries are complicated and violent conflict led by the SPLM (North) in the Sudanese Nuba mountains region has since intensified.

Darfur. Other long-standing violent conflicts are in the east and the west of the country. In the east, the Beja Congress, established in 1957, is the spearhead of a currently ‘peaceful’ opposition movement. In the west, the violent conflict in Darfur intensified in the early 2000s and rapidly gained international attention, even resulting in genocide charges against leading figures of the Sudanese government. The situation on the ground is complex, with over a dozen organisations (most notably the Sudanese Liberation Movement and the Justice and Equality Movement) fighting the Sudanese government and allied groups like the Janjaweed – although all parties have switched sides on numerous occasions. Several mediation attempts have not been successful, due to the shaky commitment of the Sudanese central government and the distrust among the armed opposition.

South Sudan- internal. Post independence, conflict broke out between groups in South Sudan and agreements were reached addressing this conflict.

Sudan Conflicts (1955 - ) )
Stage
Pre-negotiation/process (Principles)
Conflict nature
Government/territory
Peace process
24: Darfur-Sudan peace process
Parties
AU Special Envoys for Darfur, Dr. Salim Ahmed Salim
UN Special Envoys for Darfur, Mr. Jan Eliasson
'Leading personalities of the Darfur Movements'
The regional countries Chad, Egypt, Eritrea and Libya also participated in the meeting. Several Field Commanders were also present.
Third parties
Description
Short document detailing the discussions held between AU and UN Special Envoys and representatives of the Darfur Movements. The document lists the main points made by the Darfur Movements, largely relating to the existence of a common negotiating platform in upcoming negotiations with the Government of Sudan. Other provisions relate to the inclusion of a broad range of views in the upcoming negotiations, and also more general security and humanitarian matters.

Agreement document
SD_070806_Chairman Conclusions.pdf

Main category
Page 1,
The discussions focused on the following issues: (a) Need for a common negotiation platform of the Movements for the resumed talks; (b) Criteria and level of participation in the final negotiations; (c) Agenda and venue for the renewed talks; (d) Inclusion of the concerns of IDPs, refugees, tribal leaders, women and other civil society groups; and (e) Security and humanitarian matters.

Page 2,
VIII. Urged the Special Envoys to continue and finalize their consultations with IDPs, refugees, traditional leaders and civil society organisations, including women's groups in an effort to develop a mechanism to channel their views and positions into the final negotiations.

Women, girls and gender

Participation
No specific mention.
Equality
No specific mention.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
Infrastructure (general)
Page 1,
The discussions focused on the following issues: (a) Need for a common negotiation platform of the Movements for the resumed talks; (b) Criteria and level of participation in the final negotiations; (c) Agenda and venue for the renewed talks; (d) Inclusion of the concerns of IDPs, refugees, tribal leaders, women and other civil society groups; and (e) Security and humanitarian matters

Page 2,
VIII. Urged the Special Envoys to continue and finalize their consultations with IDPs, refugees, traditional leaders and civil society organisations, including women's groups in an effort to develop a mechanism to channel their views and positions into the final negotiations
Violence against women
No specific mention.
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
Development
No specific mention.
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh