Dar-es-Salaam Agreement on Principles Towards lasting Peace, Security, and Stability in Burundi

Country/entity
Burundi
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Dar-es-Salaam Agreement on Principles Towards lasting Peace, Security, and Stability in Burundi
Date
18/06/2006
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Burundian Civil War (1993-2005)
The conflict had an ethnic base between Hutu and Tutsi populations, and is one of a set of regionally connected conflicts also addressed n the Great Lakes process. Since independence in 1972, the Burundian political landscape has been polarised and marked by ethnic-based tensions, political assassinations and large-scale violence. For the following two decades, three Tutsi military regimes associated with the Union for National Progress (UPRONA) ruled the country. During these military dictatorships, numerous waves of mass violence resulted from the attempts of various opposition rebels groups to destabilise the three regimes, and the regimes’ use of violence to repress these attempts. Despite a wave of hope in the early 1990’s, Burundi entered a decade-long civil war in 1993 following the assassination of Burundi’s first democratically elected president, Melchior Ndadaye, from the ethnically-Hutu Front for Democracy in Burundi (FRODEBU) by Tutsi opposition in the military.
In 1998 the Arusha Peace Talks commenced and in August 2000, international pressure resulted in the signing of the Arusha Peace and Reconciliation Agreement for Burundi. However, the National Council for the Defense of Democracy (CNND) did not sign. Additionally, and Party for the Liberation of Hutu People (Palipehutu) did not participate in negotiations. These outsiders continued sporadic violence until 2008. In 2015, a new wave of political violence is taking place after President Nkurunziza, from the CNDD-FDD which has been in power since 2005, won a contested third-mandate.
Burundian Civil War (1993-2005) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - comprehensive (Agreement)
Conflict nature
Government
Peace process
19: Burundi: Arusha and related peace process
Parties
The Governenment of Burundi and the Palipehutu-FNL

In the presence of :
...
- H.E. Pierre Nkurunziza, President of the Republic of Burundi

Signatory Party:
For the Government of Burundi - Name of the Representative: H.E. Evariste Ndayishimiye
Title: Head of the Burundi Government Delegation

For the Palipehutu-FNL - Name of the Representative: H.E. Agathon Rwasa
Title: Chairman
Third parties
Having participated in the talks facilitated by the Minister of Safety and Security of the Republic of South Africa, His Excellency Charles Nqakula, in terms of the mandate of the Regional Initiative for Peace in Burundi.

In the presence of :
- H.E. Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete, Deputy Chairperson of the Regional Initiative on the Burundi Peace Process;
- H.E. Charles Nqakula, Facilitaor;
- H.E. Ambassador Mamadou Bah, Representative of the Chairperson of the African Union Commission;
- H.E. Ambassador Nureldin Satti, Special Representative of the United Nations, Secretary General Kofi Anan;
Description
This agreement defines comprehensive principles for peace and security in between the Government of Burundi and the FNL. It addresses the following dimensions: I. The History of Burundi and the Ethnic Question; II. Provisional Immunity for the members of the Palipehutu-FNL and its Transformation into a Political Party; III. Repatriation of Refugees and Return of the Displaced and Regrouped Persons; IV. Defence and Security Forces; V. Guarantors of the Process; VI: Non-engagement in Attacks.

Agreement document
BI_060618_Dar es salaam agreement of principles_BAD.pdf

Main category
Page 4, Article 1. The history of Burundi and the Ethnic Question:
...
The Truth and Reconciliation Commission shall be called the Truth, Forgiveness and Reconciliation Commission. Its mission shall be to establish the facts regarding die dark periods of our history and to identify the responsibility of the different individuals with a view to forgiveness and reconciliation among the Barundi. It should reflect the broadest representation of the Burundi society in its political, social, ethnic, religious and gender aspects.

Page 9, Annexure A, Chapter 1. The history of Burundi and the Ethnic Question, Article 2
The Truth and Reconciliation Commission shall be called the Truth, Forgiveness and Reconciliation Commission.
Its mission shall be to establish the facts regarding die dark periods of our history and to identify the responsibility of the different individuals with a view to forgiveness and reconciliation among the Barundi. It should reflect the broadest representation of the Burundi society in its political, social, ethnic, religious and gender aspects.

Women, girls and gender

Participation
No specific mention.
Equality
No specific mention.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
No specific mention.
Transitional justice
Past and gender
Page 4, Article 1. The history of Burundi and the Ethnic Question:
...
The Truth and Reconciliation Commission shall be called the Truth, Forgiveness and Reconciliation Commission. Its mission shall be to establish the facts regarding the dark periods of our history and to identify the responsibility of the different individuals with a view to forgiveness and reconciliation among the Barundi. It should reflect the broadest representation of the Burundi society in its political, social, ethnic, religious and gender aspects.

Page 9, Annex A, Chapter 1. The history of Burundi and the Ethnic Question, Article 2
The Truth and Reconciliation Commission shall be called the Truth, Forgiveness and Reconciliation Commission. Its mission shall be to establish the facts regarding the dark periods of our history and to identify the responsibility of the different individuals with a view to forgiveness and reconciliation among the Barundi. It should reflect the broadest representation of the Burundi society in its political, social, ethnic, religious and gender aspects.
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
Development
No specific mention.
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh