Déclaration du Directoire Politique du processus de paix au Burundi sur le processus de mise en oeuvre des décisions conjointes prises à Pretoria

Country/entity
Burundi
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Déclaration du Directoire Politique du processus de paix au Burundi sur le processus de mise en oeuvre des décisions conjointes prises à Pretoria
Date
08/04/2009
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Burundian Civil War (1993-2005)
The conflict had an ethnic base between Hutu and Tutsi populations, and is one of a set of regionally connected conflicts also addressed n the Great Lakes process. Since independence in 1972, the Burundian political landscape has been polarised and marked by ethnic-based tensions, political assassinations and large-scale violence. For the following two decades, three Tutsi military regimes associated with the Union for National Progress (UPRONA) ruled the country. During these military dictatorships, numerous waves of mass violence resulted from the attempts of various opposition rebels groups to destabilise the three regimes, and the regimes’ use of violence to repress these attempts. Despite a wave of hope in the early 1990’s, Burundi entered a decade-long civil war in 1993 following the assassination of Burundi’s first democratically elected president, Melchior Ndadaye, from the ethnically-Hutu Front for Democracy in Burundi (FRODEBU) by Tutsi opposition in the military.
In 1998 the Arusha Peace Talks commenced and in August 2000, international pressure resulted in the signing of the Arusha Peace and Reconciliation Agreement for Burundi. However, the National Council for the Defense of Democracy (CNND) did not sign. Additionally, and Party for the Liberation of Hutu People (Palipehutu) did not participate in negotiations. These outsiders continued sporadic violence until 2008. In 2015, a new wave of political violence is taking place after President Nkurunziza, from the CNDD-FDD which has been in power since 2005, won a contested third-mandate.
Burundian Civil War (1993-2005) )
Stage
Implementation/renegotiation (Implementation modalities)
Conflict nature
Government
Peace process
19: Burundi: Arusha and related peace process
Parties
The Government of Burundi (Ambassador Dumisani Khumalo, Division General: Evariste Ndayishimiye) and the FNL (Front National de Liberation, General Secretary: Jonas Nshimirimana, FNL President: Agathon Rwasa)

(The Political Directorate participated under the direction of its new president, Ambassador Dumisani Khumalo, as well as the tripartite high-level working group set up by the Facilitator last month (consisting of Division General Evarist Ndayishmiye, representing the Government of the Republic of Burundi, Mr Jonas Nshimirimana, FNL Secretary-General, and Lieutenant-General Derick Mgwebi of S. Africa who is president of the group); Mr Agathon Rwasa, President of the FNL, was also present.)
Third parties
Facilitator: Mr. Minister Charles Nqakula from South Africa
President of Political Directory: Lieutenant-General Derick Mgwebi from South Africa

(The Political Directorate participated under the direction of its new president, Ambassador Dumisani Khumalo, as well as the tripartite high-level working group set up by the Facilitator last month (consisting of Division General Evarist Ndayishmiye, representing the Government of the Republic of Burundi, Mr Jonas Nshimirimana, FNL Secretary-General, and Lieutenant-General Derick Mgwebi of S. Africa who is president of the group); Mr Agathon Rwasa, President of the FNL, was also present.)
Description
This document is about finally doing everything possible to implement the ceasefire of September 7, 2006. It includes a list of tasks for the FNL e.g. separate adults from children, reunite the people still in the safe zones, disarm and decommission, and making lists of who will be integrate into the national army and security forces (3500), who will simply disarm (5000), list of adult associates of the movement, list of up to 1000 women associates of FNL. Two associates’ categories will be eligible for subsidies for their social and economic reinsertion. The document also includes tasks for the government: inter alia oversight of the children separated from the FNL.

Agreement document
BI_090408_DeclarationDirectoirePolitiqueduProcessusdePaix_tr.pdf

Agreement document (original language)
BI_090408_DeclarationDirectoirePolitiqueduProcessusdePaix.pdf

Main category
(p.1) ‘Jusqu’à un maximum de 1.000 femmes dont les noms peuvent ne pas figurer sur la liste certifiée mais qui, conformément à la Résolution 1325 de l’an 2000 du Conseil de Sécurité sur les femmes, la paix et la sécurité, peuvent être considérées comme des « femmes associées » aux FNL.’
(p.2) ‘le gouvernment du Burundi et le FNL devront urgememment nommer, chacun, deux représentant, qui travailleront étroitement avec les Nations Unies et d’autres parties prenantes sur tous les aspects relatifs au genre.’

Page 1, para 6: The FNL, having separated their adult members from their children members, should:
…(b) proceed with the separation of their members and divide them up according to the four following categories:
…(4) Up to a maximum of 1000 women whose names may not appear on the certified list, but who, in compliance with UN Security Council Resolution 1325 on Women Peace and Security passed in 2000, could be considered as ‘women associated with the FNL’.
People in categories (3) and (4) will be eligible to receive allowances of which a significant portion will be allocated for their socio-economic reintegration at the community level.

Page 2, para 9: The Government of Burundi and the FNL should each urgently appoint two representatives who will work directly with the United Nations and other stakeholders on all gender-related matters.

Marian's translation:
Page 1-2:
...
The decisions taken in Pretoria have been transformed into the following specific actions which the Burundian parties must implement immediately:
- The FNL having separated their adult and child members must (a) within 3 days gather together all of their members whose names appear on the certified list and who are still in the pre-assembly zones, disarm them and hand over all their arms to the African Union Special Force, (b) separate the various elements and allocate them to the following four categories:
...
(4) A maximum of 1,000 women who do not appear on the certified list but who, in accordance with the year 2000 Security Council Resolution 1325 on women, peace and security, may be considered to be FNL “associated women”.
Categories (3) and (4) will be eligible for subsidies, an important proportion of which will be aimed at their socio-economic reintegration in the community.

Women, girls and gender

Participation
No specific mention.
Equality
No specific mention.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
References to UNSC 1325 itself
Page 1, para 6
The FNL, having separated their adult members from their children members, should:
...(b) proceed with the separation of their members and divide them up according to the four following categories:
...(4) Up to a maximum of 1000 women whose names may not appear on the certified list, but who, in compliance with UN Security Council Resolution 1325 on Women Peace and Security passed in 2000, could be considered as ‘women associated with the FNL’.
People in categories (3) and (4) will be eligible to receive allowances of which a significant portion will be allocated for their socio-economic reintegration at the community level.
New institutions
Infrastructure (general)
Page 2, para 9
The Government of Burundi and the FNL should each urgently appoint two representatives who will work directly with the United Nations and other stakeholders on all gender-related matters.
Violence against women
No specific mention.
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
DDR, army, parastatal or rebel forces
Page 1, para 6
The FNL, having separated their adult members from their children members, should:
...(b) proceed with the separation of their members and divide them up according to the four following categories:
...(4) Up to a maximum of 1000 women whose names may not appear on the certified list, but who, in compliance with UN Security Council Resolution 1325 on Women Peace and Security passed in 2000, could be considered as ‘women associated with the FNL’.
People in categories (3) and (4) will be eligible to receive allowances of which a significant portion will be allocated for their socio-economic reintegration at the community level.
Development
No specific mention.
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh