North West Frontier Province Government’s Agreement with the Taliban

Country/entity
Pakistan
Taliban
Region
Cross-regional
Agreement name
North West Frontier Province Government’s Agreement with the Taliban
Date
21/05/2008
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (India-Pakistan Conflict (1947 - ) and the Pakistani Taliban (2001 - )
Two distinct contexts have generated agreements.

India-Pakistan Conflict (1947 - )
The roots of the India-Pakistan Conflict lay in the partition of the British Indian Empire following the end of World War II, and the creation of the predominately Muslim Dominion of Pakistan (now Pakistan and Bangladesh) and the Union of India in 1947. Fuelled by Hindu and Muslim nationalism, the political partition spurred the largest mass migration as minorities sought reference among their communal majorities. Retaliatory violence on both sides led to the deaths of 200,000 to 500,000 people.

A few weeks following the partition, Pakistan sent tribal militias into the Princely State of Jammu and Kashmir, sparking the Indo-Pakistan War of 1947. Two other wars broke out in 1965 and in 1991, as well as a number of skirmishes over the Siachan Glacier. The conflict has seen less casualties since the announcement of a ceasefire in 2003, despite frequent violations by both sides. Public unrest remains sporadic and there has been occasional actions by Islamic militants. In addition, despite a decrease in human rights conditions by occupying forces on both sides, abuses are still documented.

Another dimension of the conflict developed in 1997, after Pakistan announced a successful nuclear test. Since then there has been a proliferation of treaties ensuring clear lines of communication in regards to nuclear testing and accidents to deter accidental escalation.

Pakistan-Afghanistan-US Conflict (2001 - )
Since the 2000s, the Afghanistan war had a noticeable spill-over effect to Pakistan. The Afghan Taliban maintain several strongholds in the western parts of Pakistan, especially in the Northwest Tribal Region. Native Islamist guerrilla outfits also remain active in the region and in 2007 they formed the umbrella organisation known as the Pakistan Taliban until it splintered into four different groups in 2014.

India-Pakistan Conflict (1947 - ) and the Pakistani Taliban (2001 - ) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - partial (Multiple issues)
Conflict nature
Inter-group
Peace process
93: Pakistan-Taliban process
Parties
Pakistani Government; Pakistani Taliban
Third parties
Description
Short agreement outlining 16 points that guide the parameters of the Taliban and the Pakistani Government in the North West Frontier Province.

Agreement document
PK_080522_North West Frontier Province Government Agreement with Taliban.pdf

Main category
Page 1, 7. Non-local militants will be immediately handed over to the government. Attacks on barber shops and markets visited by women should be stopped

Page 1, 9. There will be no ban on health teams administering vaccination or drops to children against diseases like polio. There will be no ban on girls’ education

Women, girls and gender

Participation
No specific mention.
Equality
No specific mention.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
Gender-based violence/VAW (general)
Page 1, 7.
Non-local militants will be immediately handed over to the government. Attacks on barber shops and markets visited by women should be stopped
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
Development
Education
Page 1, 9.
There will be no ban on health teams administering vaccination or drops to children against diseases like polio. There will be no ban on girls’ education
Health (general)
Page 1, 9.
There will be no ban on health teams administering vaccination or drops to children against diseases like polio. There will be no ban on girls’ education
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh