India-Pakistan Conflict (1947 - )
The roots of the India-Pakistan Conflict lay in the partition of the British Indian Empire following the end of World War II, and the creation of the predominately Muslim Dominion of Pakistan (now Pakistan and Bangladesh) and the Union of India in 1947. Fuelled by Hindu and Muslim nationalism, the political partition spurred the largest mass migration as minorities sought reference among their communal majorities. Retaliatory violence on both sides led to the deaths of 200,000 to 500,000 people.
A few weeks following the partition, Pakistan sent tribal militias into the Princely State of Jammu and Kashmir, sparking the Indo-Pakistan War of 1947. Two other wars broke out in 1965 and in 1991, as well as a number of skirmishes over the Siachan Glacier. The conflict has seen less casualties since the announcement of a ceasefire in 2003, despite frequent violations by both sides. Public unrest remains sporadic and there has been occasional actions by Islamic militants. In addition, despite a decrease in human rights conditions by occupying forces on both sides, abuses are still documented.
Another dimension of the conflict developed in 1997, after Pakistan announced a successful nuclear test. Since then there has been a proliferation of treaties ensuring clear lines of communication in regards to nuclear testing and accidents to deter accidental escalation.
Pakistan-Afghanistan-US Conflict (2001 - )
Since the 2000s, the Afghanistan war had a noticeable spill-over effect to Pakistan. The Afghan Taliban maintain several strongholds in the western parts of Pakistan, especially in the Northwest Tribal Region. Native Islamist guerrilla outfits also remain active in the region and in 2007 they formed the umbrella organisation known as the Pakistan Taliban until it splintered into four different groups in 2014.
India-Pakistan Conflict (1947 - ) and the Pakistani Taliban (2001 - )
Framework/substantive - partial (Multiple issues)
93: Pakistan-Taliban process
Pakistani Government; Pakistani Taliban
Short agreement outlining 16 points that guide the parameters of the Taliban and the Pakistani Government in the North West Frontier Province.
The University of Edinburgh is a charitable body,
registered in Scotland, with registration number SC005336,
VAT Registration Number GB 592 9507 00,
and is acknowledged by the UK authorities as a
which has been granted degree awarding powers.