Agreement between the TFG and the Puntland Regional State of Somalia (Galkayo Agreement)

Country/entity
Somalia
Puntland
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Agreement between the TFG and the Puntland Regional State of Somalia (Galkayo Agreement)
Date
23/08/2009
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Somali Civil War (1991 - )
Originally spurred by centre-peripheral tensions, fighting broke out in 1981 between the regime of President Said Barre and the Somali National Movement, a militia primarily consisting of members from the northern Ishaq clan. Fighting intensified in the late 1980s as more clan-based militias arose. President Barre’s regime collapsed in late 1991 and as a result the UN intervened. However persistent attacks on the UN’s forces forced a withdrawal in 1994. From the mid- to late 1990s, the character of the conflict shifted as warlords fought for access to rents. Also during this period, two different peace agreements arose; the Sodere Declaration, which was mediated by Ethiopia and supported by IGAD, and the Cairo Accord, which was brokered by Egypt. Fighting, already noticeably lessened compared to the early 1990s, decreased and the more amicable environment paved the way for the Transitional Government to be formed in 2000 (replaced in 2004 by the Transitional Federal Government).

Nonetheless, opposition to the TFG arose in the form of the Islamic Courts Union (ICU), which by early 2006 had taken control of most of southern Somalia until they were ousted by an armed intervention by Ethiopia in December 2006. As a result, the ICU splintered. Hard-line ICU members formed the Takfiri organization, Harakat al-Shabaab al-Mujahideen, and launched a guerrilla campaign against the TFG. Another faction of the ICU fled to Djibouti and formed the Alliance for the Re-liberation of Somalia, which was absorbed into the ruling TFG after successful negotiations in 2007.

To deal with the new round of fighting, the UN-mandated AMISOM force was deployed in 2007. Since then, insecurity has fluctuated between the urban and rural areas as the al-Shabaab's territorial gains waver. Local militia leaders maintain de facto governance over communities. From 2009 to 2012, insecurity spilled-over into the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean when Somali pirates seized, looted and ransomed ships. In 2014, 'Operation Indian Ocean' was launched and in parallel with infighting among the al-Shabaab, the organisation's position in Somalia has diminished slightly. However, as evidenced by large-scale attacks by the al-Shabaab in northern Kenya throughout 2013-2015, the lack of security continues to destabilize the region. The al-Shabaab has been characterized as a spoiler in the Somali peace process and have therefore been placed outside of any negotiations.
Somali Civil War (1991 - ) )
Stage
Implementation/renegotiation (Implementation modalities)
Conflict nature
Government/territory
Peace process
111: Somalia-Puntland Peace Process
Parties
Prime Minister of TFG, signed by Omar Abdurashid Ali Sharmarke; President of Puntland, Abdurahman Mohamed Mohamed 'Farole'
Third parties
Description
Short agreement agreeing to integrate Puntland into the Transitional Federal Government, including Puntland participation in the constitutional drafting process; the participation of Puntland in meetings of interest to it; the continuation of the F.A.L. development plans by the Mogadishu government; establishing Somali Army training camps and a Maritime Police Forces center in Puntland; continuing the fight against piracy; distribution of education bursaries to Puntland; training teachers in Puntland; establishing international humanitarian offices in Puntland; keeping contact with Somalis abroad presevering Somali culture; integrating regional administrations.

Agreement document
SO_090823_Agreement between TFG and the Puntland Regional State of Somalia (Galcayo Agr.).pdf

Main category
Page 2, 11. The IFG Ministry of Education and that of Puntland shall have a joint working relationship and shall harmoniously work on means of training teachers and headmasters/headmistress. They will also work on means of unifying the curriculum of the Somali Education System.

Women, girls and gender

Participation
No specific mention.
Equality
No specific mention.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
No specific mention.
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
Development
Education
Page 2, 11. The IFG Ministry of Education and that of Puntland shall have a joint working relationship and shall harmoniously work on means of training teachers and headmasters/headmistress. They will also work on means of unifying the curriculum of the Somali Education System.
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh