Consultative Meeting on Ending the Transition in Somalia: Statement on Adoption of the Roadmap (Kampala Roadmap)

Country/entity
Somalia
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Consultative Meeting on Ending the Transition in Somalia: Statement on Adoption of the Roadmap (Kampala Roadmap)
Date
06/09/2011
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Somali Civil War (1991 - )
Originally spurred by centre-peripheral tensions, fighting broke out in 1981 between the regime of President Said Barre and the Somali National Movement, a militia primarily consisting of members from the northern Ishaq clan. Fighting intensified in the late 1980s as more clan-based militias arose. President Barre’s regime collapsed in late 1991 and as a result the UN intervened. However persistent attacks on the UN’s forces forced a withdrawal in 1994. From the mid- to late 1990s, the character of the conflict shifted as warlords fought for access to rents. Also during this period, two different peace agreements arose; the Sodere Declaration, which was mediated by Ethiopia and supported by IGAD, and the Cairo Accord, which was brokered by Egypt. Fighting, already noticeably lessened compared to the early 1990s, decreased and the more amicable environment paved the way for the Transitional Government to be formed in 2000 (replaced in 2004 by the Transitional Federal Government).

Nonetheless, opposition to the TFG arose in the form of the Islamic Courts Union (ICU), which by early 2006 had taken control of most of southern Somalia until they were ousted by an armed intervention by Ethiopia in December 2006. As a result, the ICU splintered. Hard-line ICU members formed the Takfiri organization, Harakat al-Shabaab al-Mujahideen, and launched a guerrilla campaign against the TFG. Another faction of the ICU fled to Djibouti and formed the Alliance for the Re-liberation of Somalia, which was absorbed into the ruling TFG after successful negotiations in 2007.

To deal with the new round of fighting, the UN-mandated AMISOM force was deployed in 2007. Since then, insecurity has fluctuated between the urban and rural areas as the al-Shabaab's territorial gains waver. Local militia leaders maintain de facto governance over communities. From 2009 to 2012, insecurity spilled-over into the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean when Somali pirates seized, looted and ransomed ships. In 2014, 'Operation Indian Ocean' was launched and in parallel with infighting among the al-Shabaab, the organisation's position in Somalia has diminished slightly. However, as evidenced by large-scale attacks by the al-Shabaab in northern Kenya throughout 2013-2015, the lack of security continues to destabilize the region. The al-Shabaab has been characterized as a spoiler in the Somali peace process and have therefore been placed outside of any negotiations.
Somali Civil War (1991 - ) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - comprehensive (Agreement)
Conflict nature
Government/territory
Peace process
94: Somalia Peace Process
Parties
H.E. Abdiweli Mohamed Ali, Prime Minister of the TFG; Abdi Farah Saeed, Minister of Education, Puntland State of Somalia; Mohamed Ali-Nur Hagi, Minister of Int. Cooperation, Galmudug; Khalif Abdulkadir Moalin Noor, Head of the Delegation, ASWJ;
Third parties
Augustine P. Mahiga, Special Representative of United Nations Secretary-General; Hon. Wafula Wamunyinyi, Deputy Special Representative of the Chairperson of the African Union Commission; Mohamed Said Omar, Senior Governance and Policy Advisor, IGAD; Mohamed Idris, Head of League of Arab States Mission in Somalia

3. ...Approximately three dozen stakeholders from the international community also participated in the proceedings, including: regional organisations, namely: European Unions, Inter-Governmental Authority on Development, League of Arab States and Organisation of the Islamic Conference.
Description
Agreement sets forth a highly detailed roadmap for ending the transitional period, including the constitution-making process and formation of the new government.

Agreement document
SO_ 110906_End of Transition Roadmap.pdf

Main category
Page 1, untitled preamble, 5.a. Somali Ownership:
The TFG shall lead the process of the implementation of the Roadmap, working with TFP ... including women,...

Page 6, Benchmark 2: Constitution - (a) the Draft Constitution finalized for adoption
... (b) Committee of Somali Experts (maximum 9 persons including up to 4 women) appointed by 19 September 2011 to support the preparation of Draft Constitution.

Page 7, Benchmark 2: Constitution - (a) the Draft Constitution adopted
... (a) Appoint Joint Committee (TFG, TFP, Regional Administrations, Experts, CSO representatives - maximum 15 persons including 5 women) by 19 September 2011; to undertake preparation for adoption of the Draft Constitution.

Page 8, Benchmark 2: Constitution: (c) Parliamentary Reform
... (c) Appoint Joint Committee (TFG, TFP, Regional Administrations, Civil Society and Experts - not more than 15 persons including 5 women) by 19 September 2011 to consult and prepare recommendations and modalities for establishing a new Federal Parliament under a new Federal Constitution.

Page 9, Benchmark 2: Constitution: (d) Elections and Constitutional Referendum
... (b) Appoint competent members of an Interim Independent Electoral Commission (maximum 9 persons and up to 4 women) by 19 September 2011; to undertake preparations for elections.

Page 11, Benchmark 4: Good Governance: (a) Transparency and Accountability
... (c) Appoint competent members of an Interim Independent Anti-Corruption Commission (maximum 9 persons including 4 women) by 19 November 2011.

Women, girls and gender

Participation
Gender quotas
Page 6, Benchmark 2: Constitution - (a) the Draft Constitution finalized for adoption
... (b) Committee of Somali Experts (maximum 9 persons including up to 4 women) appointed by 19 September 2011 to support the preparation of Draft Constitution.


Page 7, Benchmark 2: Constitution - (a) the Draft Constitution adopted
... (a) Appoint Joint Committee (TFG, TFP, Regional Administrations, Experts, CSO representatives - maximum 15 persons including 5 women) by 19 September 2011; to undertake preparation for adoption of the Draft Constitution.


Page 8, Benchmark 2: Constitution: (c) Parliamentary Reform
... (c) Appoint Joint Committee (TFG, TFP, Regional Administrations, Civil Society and Experts - not more than 15 persons including 5 women) by 19 September 2011 to consult and prepare recommendations and modalities for establishing a new Federal Parliament under a new Federal Constitution.


Page 9, Benchmark 2: Constitution: (d) Elections and Constitutional Referendum
... (b) Appoint competent members of an Interim Independent Electoral Commission (maximum 9 persons and up to 4 women) by 19 September 2011; to undertake preparations for elections.


Page 11, Benchmark 4: Good Governance: (a) Transparency and Accountability
... (c) Appoint competent members of an Interim Independent Anti-Corruption Commission (maximum 9 persons including 4 women) by 19 November 2011.
Effective participation
Page 1, untitled preamble, 5.a. Somali Ownership:
The TFG shall lead the process of the implementation of the Roadmap, working with TFP ... including women,...
Equality
No specific mention.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
Infrastructure (general)
Page 1, untitled preamble, 5.a. Somali Ownership:
The TFG shall lead the process of the implementation of the Roadmap, working with TFP ... including women,...

Violence against women
No specific mention.
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
Constitution-making/reform
Page 6, Benchmark 2: Constitution - (a) the Draft Constitution finalized for adoption ... (b) Committee of Somali Experts (maximum 9 persons including up to 4 women) appointed by 19 September 2011 to support the preparation of Draft Constitution

Page 7, Benchmark 2: Constitution - (a) the Draft Constitution adopted ... (a) Appoint Joint Committee (TFG, TFP, Regional Administrations, Experts, CSO representatives - maximum 15 persons including 5 women) by 19 September 2011; to undertake preparation for adoption of the Draft Constitution.

Page 8, Benchmark 2: Constitution: (c) Parliamentary Reform ... (c) Appoint Joint Committee (TFG, TFP, Regional Administrations, Civil Society and Experts - not more than 15 persons including 5 women) by 19 September 2011 to consult and prepare recommendations and modalities for establishing a new Federal Parliament under a new Federal Constitution. Page 9, Benchmark 2: Constitution: (d) Elections and Constitutional Referendum ... (b) Appoint competent members of an Interim Independent Electoral Commission (maximum 9 persons and up to 4 women) by 19 September 2011; to undertake preparations for elections. Page 11, Benchmark 4: Good Governance: (a) Transparency and Accountability ... (c) Appoint competent members of an Interim Independent Anti-Corruption Commission (maximum 9 persons including 4 women) by 19 November 2011.
Public administration
Page 11, Benchmark 4: Good Governance: (a) Transparency and Accountability
... (c) Appoint competent members of an Interim Independent Anti-Corruption Commission (maximum 9 persons including 4 women) by 19 November 2011.
Development
No specific mention.
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh