Sodere Declaration, comprising the Declaration of National Pledges and Commitments, and Solemn Declaration, adopted on 3 January 1997 by the High-level Consultative Meeting of Somali Political Movements, held at Sodere, Ethiopia

Country/entity
Somalia
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Sodere Declaration, comprising the Declaration of National Pledges and Commitments, and Solemn Declaration, adopted on 3 January 1997 by the High-level Consultative Meeting of Somali Political Movements, held at Sodere, Ethiopia
Date
03/01/1997
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Somali Civil War (1991 - )
Originally spurred by centre-peripheral tensions, fighting broke out in 1981 between the regime of President Said Barre and the Somali National Movement, a militia primarily consisting of members from the northern Ishaq clan. Fighting intensified in the late 1980s as more clan-based militias arose. President Barre’s regime collapsed in late 1991 and as a result the UN intervened. However persistent attacks on the UN’s forces forced a withdrawal in 1994. From the mid- to late 1990s, the character of the conflict shifted as warlords fought for access to rents. Also during this period, two different peace agreements arose; the Sodere Declaration, which was mediated by Ethiopia and supported by IGAD, and the Cairo Accord, which was brokered by Egypt. Fighting, already noticeably lessened compared to the early 1990s, decreased and the more amicable environment paved the way for the Transitional Government to be formed in 2000 (replaced in 2004 by the Transitional Federal Government).

Nonetheless, opposition to the TFG arose in the form of the Islamic Courts Union (ICU), which by early 2006 had taken control of most of southern Somalia until they were ousted by an armed intervention by Ethiopia in December 2006. As a result, the ICU splintered. Hard-line ICU members formed the Takfiri organization, Harakat al-Shabaab al-Mujahideen, and launched a guerrilla campaign against the TFG. Another faction of the ICU fled to Djibouti and formed the Alliance for the Re-liberation of Somalia, which was absorbed into the ruling TFG after successful negotiations in 2007.

To deal with the new round of fighting, the UN-mandated AMISOM force was deployed in 2007. Since then, insecurity has fluctuated between the urban and rural areas as the al-Shabaab's territorial gains waver. Local militia leaders maintain de facto governance over communities. From 2009 to 2012, insecurity spilled-over into the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean when Somali pirates seized, looted and ransomed ships. In 2014, 'Operation Indian Ocean' was launched and in parallel with infighting among the al-Shabaab, the organisation's position in Somalia has diminished slightly. However, as evidenced by large-scale attacks by the al-Shabaab in northern Kenya throughout 2013-2015, the lack of security continues to destabilize the region. The al-Shabaab has been characterized as a spoiler in the Somali peace process and have therefore been placed outside of any negotiations.
Somali Civil War (1991 - ) )
Stage
Pre-negotiation/process (Principles)
Conflict nature
Government
Peace process
94: Somalia Peace Process
Parties
Somali Afrikans Muki Organization/Somali Salvation Alliance, Signed by Mohamed Ramadan Arbow; Somali Democratic Alliance/Somali Salvation Alliance, Signed by Ali Haji Hersi; Somali Democratic Movement/Bonkai, Signed by Abdulahi Mohamed Idris "Lesto"; Somali Democratic Movement/Somali National Alliance, Signed by Issaq Malaq Ibrahim; Somali Democratic Movement/Rahanwein Resistance Army, Signed by Hassan Mohamed Nur; Somali Democratic Movement/Somali Salvation Alliance, Signed by Abdi Musa Mayow; Somali Democratic Union, Signed by Abukar Abdi Osman; Somali National Democratic Union, Signed by Ali Ismail Abdi; Somali National Democratic Union/Somali Salvation Alliance, Signed by Mohamed Adan Yusuf; Somali National Front/Somali Salvation Alliance, Signed by Omer Haji Mohamed; Somali National Union/Somali Salvation Alliance, Signed by Mohamed Rajis Mohamed; Somali Patriotic Movement/Somali National Alliance, Signed Ahmed Hashi Mohamud; Somali Patriotic Movement/Somali Salvation Alliance, Signed by Adan Abdulahi Nur; Somali Salvation Congress, Signed by Abdullahi Moallin Mohamed; Somali Salvation Democratic Front, Signed by Mohamed Abshir Musa; Somali Salvation Democratic Front, Signed by Abdilahi Yusuf Ahmed; Southern Somali National Movement/Somali Salvation Alliance, Signed by Abdullahi Shiek Ismail; SUDO/Somali Salvation Alliance, Signed by Abdi Abdulahi Ibrahim; United Somali Congress, Signed by Osman Roble Mohamud; United Somali Congress/Somali National Alliance, Signed by Osman Hassan Ali, Ato; United Somali Congress/Patriotic Movement/Somali Salvation Alliance, Signed by Abdi Osman Farah; United Somali Congress/Somali Salvation Alliance, Signed by Ali Mahdi Mohamed; United Somali Congress/Upper Jubba, Signed by Yusuf Sheekh Mohamed; United Somali Front/Somali Salvation Alliance, Signed by Abdi Omer Ahmed; United Somali Party, Signed by Ahmed Gure Adan; United Somali Party/Somali Salvation Alliance, Signed by Mohamed Abdi Hashi; USR, Signed by Mohamud Hussein Farah
Third parties
Description
Short agreement aimed at finding common ground to begin reconstruction and rebuilding projects and re-establish a secure environment, also has the aim of creating a National Reconciliation Conference.

Agreement document
SO_970301 Sodere Declaration.pdf

Main category
Page 11, Appendix III, Have agreed on the following:
C. NATIONAL RECONCILIATION CONFERENCE AND CONCLUDING NATIONAL CONFERENCE
We have also agreed to convene a National Reconciliation Conference at Bossasso, Somalia, to approve the charter of the Transitional Central Authority or the Provisional Central Government. The National Reconciliation Conference will be attended by delegates representing a cross-section of Somali society including elders, intellectuals, women, political and religious leaders.

Women, girls and gender

Participation
Effective participation
Page 11, Appendix III, Have agreed on the following:
C. NATIONAL RECONCILIATION CONFERENCE AND CONCLUDING NATIONAL CONFERENCE
We have also agreed to convene a National Reconciliation Conference at Bossasso, Somalia, to approve the charter of the Transitional Central Authority or the Provisional Central Government. The National Reconciliation Conference will be attended by delegates representing a cross-section of Somali society including elders, intellectuals, women, political and religious leaders. A
Equality
No specific mention.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
Reconciliation and peace
Page 11, Appendix III, Have agreed on the following:
C. NATIONAL RECONCILIATION CONFERENCE AND CONCLUDING NATIONAL CONFERENCE
We have also agreed to convene a National Reconciliation Conference at Bossasso, Somalia, to approve the charter of the Transitional Central Authority or the Provisional Central Government. The National Reconciliation Conference will be attended by delegates representing a cross-section of Somali society including elders, intellectuals, women, political and religious leaders.
Violence against women
No specific mention.
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
Development
No specific mention.
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh