Framework Agreement to Resolve the Conflict in Darfur between the Government of Sudan and the LJM

Country/entity
Sudan
Darfur
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Framework Agreement to Resolve the Conflict in Darfur between the Government of Sudan and the LJM
Date
18/03/2010
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Sudan Conflicts (1955 - )
Agreements relate to several distinct dyads, and also the negotiated independence of South Sudan, and subsequent internal conflict in South Sudan. Sudan-South Sudan. The long-standing conflict between the north and the south of the country dates back to colonial times, where the British introduced a so-called ‘Southern Policy’, severely hampering population movements between these big regions. Immediately after gaining independence in 1956, southern movements started to fight for independence; this fight became professionalised in 1983 with the foundation of the soon internationally supported Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA). When the Islamic Front government introduced strict sharia laws in the south after it took over power in 1988 the war intensified. A decade later, the military situation reached a stalemate, enabling internationally facilitated peace negotiations to begin in 1997. After more fighting, a final negotiation push began in 2002, leading to the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Areement (CPA) in January 2005.

Sudan-South Sudan post referendum. South Sudan became independent in July 2011; since then, relations between the two countries are complicated and violent conflict led by the SPLM (North) in the Sudanese Nuba mountains region has since intensified.

Darfur. Other long-standing violent conflicts are in the east and the west of the country. In the east, the Beja Congress, established in 1957, is the spearhead of a currently ‘peaceful’ opposition movement. In the west, the violent conflict in Darfur intensified in the early 2000s and rapidly gained international attention, even resulting in genocide charges against leading figures of the Sudanese government. The situation on the ground is complex, with over a dozen organisations (most notably the Sudanese Liberation Movement and the Justice and Equality Movement) fighting the Sudanese government and allied groups like the Janjaweed – although all parties have switched sides on numerous occasions. Several mediation attempts have not been successful, due to the shaky commitment of the Sudanese central government and the distrust among the armed opposition.

South Sudan- internal. Post independence, conflict broke out between groups in South Sudan and agreements were reached addressing this conflict.

Sudan Conflicts (1955 - ) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - partial (Multiple issues)
Conflict nature
Government/territory
Peace process
24: Darfur-Sudan peace process
Parties
For the Government of Sudan (GoS): Dr. Ghazi Salah Eldeen Atabani, Advisor to the president of the Republic of Sudan, Who is in charge of Darfur file;
For Justice and Liberation Movement (LJM): Dr. Tejani Sisei Mohammed Atem, Chairman of the Liberation and Justice Movement;
Third parties
Witnessed by:
For the State of Qatar: Ahmed bin Abdulla Al-Mahmoud, Minister of State for Foreign Affairs and Member of the Cabinet; For the AU-UN Mediation: Djbrill Yipènè Bassolé, Joint Chief Mediator;
Description
An agreement between the Parties that establishes general principles, a ceasefire, general amnesty, the role of civil society, as well as issues to be negotiated and technical workshops for capacity-building in conducting negotiations. The agreement is to be implemented on the basis of solidarity and political partnership that unite the two Parties.

Agreement document
SD_100318_Framework GoS LJM.pdf

Main category
Page 1, 1. General Principles
(2) Reaffirmation of democracy, political pluralism, freedom, the maintenance of a vibrant and dynamic civil society, the rule of law, the independence of the judiciary, the freedom of the press, the accountability and transparency of state institutions, and justice and equality for all regardless of ethnicity, religion, belief and gender as the basis for the effective participation of all Sudanese citizens in the management of their own affairs and decision-making processes at all levels of governance;

Page 2, 1. General Principles
(3) Recognition of citizenship as the basis for political and civil rights and duties and rejection of discrimination based on religion, belief, ethnicity, gender or any other reasons;

Page 3, 6. Role of Civil Society.
Agreement on the importance of the role of civil society in the peace process and the necessity to establish mechanisms for general participation, in particular by civil society to ensure that the views, voice, needs, rights of women, youth, displaced people, refugees and vulnerable groups are reflected in the negotiations. To secure support of the political parties and the public for the peace process and the ensuing agreement to achieve a durable peace.

Women, girls and gender

Participation
Effective participation
Page 1, 1. General Principles
(2) Reaffirmation of democracy, political pluralism, freedom, the maintenance of a vibrant and dynamic civil society, the rule of law, the independence of the judiciary, the freedom of the press, the accountability and transparency of state institutions, and justice and equality for all regardless of ethnicity, religion, belief and gender as the basis for the effective participation of all Sudanese citizens in the management of their own affairs and decision-making processes at all levels of governance;
Citizenship
Page 2, 1. General Principles
(3) Recognition of citizenship as the basis for political and civil rights and duties and rejection of discrimination based on religion, belief, ethnicity, gender or any other reasons;
Equality
No specific mention.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
Reconciliation and peace
Page 3, 6. Role of Civil Society.
Agreement on the importance of the role of civil society in the peace process and the necessity to establish mechanisms for general participation, in particular by civil society to ensure that the views, voice, needs, rights of women, youth, displaced people, refugees and vulnerable groups are reflected in the negotiations. To secure support of the political parties and the public for the peace process and the ensuing agreement to achieve a durable peace.
Violence against women
No specific mention.
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
Development
No specific mention.
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh