Ceasefire Agreement between the Government of Sudan and the LJM

Country/entity
Sudan
Darfur
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Ceasefire Agreement between the Government of Sudan and the LJM
Date
18/03/2010
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Sudan Conflicts (1955 - )
Agreements relate to several distinct dyads, and also the negotiated independence of South Sudan, and subsequent internal conflict in South Sudan. Sudan-South Sudan. The long-standing conflict between the north and the south of the country dates back to colonial times, where the British introduced a so-called ‘Southern Policy’, severely hampering population movements between these big regions. Immediately after gaining independence in 1956, southern movements started to fight for independence; this fight became professionalised in 1983 with the foundation of the soon internationally supported Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA). When the Islamic Front government introduced strict sharia laws in the south after it took over power in 1988 the war intensified. A decade later, the military situation reached a stalemate, enabling internationally facilitated peace negotiations to begin in 1997. After more fighting, a final negotiation push began in 2002, leading to the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Areement (CPA) in January 2005.

Sudan-South Sudan post referendum. South Sudan became independent in July 2011; since then, relations between the two countries are complicated and violent conflict led by the SPLM (North) in the Sudanese Nuba mountains region has since intensified.

Darfur. Other long-standing violent conflicts are in the east and the west of the country. In the east, the Beja Congress, established in 1957, is the spearhead of a currently ‘peaceful’ opposition movement. In the west, the violent conflict in Darfur intensified in the early 2000s and rapidly gained international attention, even resulting in genocide charges against leading figures of the Sudanese government. The situation on the ground is complex, with over a dozen organisations (most notably the Sudanese Liberation Movement and the Justice and Equality Movement) fighting the Sudanese government and allied groups like the Janjaweed – although all parties have switched sides on numerous occasions. Several mediation attempts have not been successful, due to the shaky commitment of the Sudanese central government and the distrust among the armed opposition.

South Sudan- internal. Post independence, conflict broke out between groups in South Sudan and agreements were reached addressing this conflict.

Sudan Conflicts (1955 - ) )
Stage
Ceasefire/related (Ceasefire)
Conflict nature
Government/territory
Peace process
24: Darfur-Sudan peace process
Parties
For the Government of Sudan (GoS): Dr. Ghazi Salah Eldeen Atabani, Advisor to the president of the Republic of Sudan, Who is in charge of Darfur file;

For Liberation and Justice Movement (LJM): Dr. Tejani Sisei Mohammed Ateem, Chairman of the Liberation and Justice Movement;
Third parties
Witnessed by:
For the State of Qatar: Ahmed bin Abdulla Al-Mahmoud, Minister of State for Foreign Affairs and Member of the Cabinet, State of Qatar;

For the AU-UN Mediation: Djibril Yipènè Bassolé, AU-UN Joint Chief Mediator for Darfur;
Description
A short agreement focusing on the creation of a ceasefire between the Government of Sudan and the Liberation and Justice Movement. Agreement focuses on the immediate terms of the ceasefire, as well as the terms for working with UNAMID in order to implement the ceasefire.

Agreement document
SD_100318_Ceasefire GoS LJM.pdf

Main category
Page 3, THE PARTIES HEREBY
(2) Agree to:
a - Immediately cease and refrain from any:
...
10. All acts and forms of gender-based violence;
11. Recruitment or use of boys and girls under age 18 years;

Page 4, THE PARTIES HEREBY
(7) The Parties shall refrain from recruiting children as soldiers or combatants, consistent with the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of Children, the Convention on the Right of the Child (CRC) and the Optional Protocol to the CRC on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict and agree to immediately release and hand over to the UN upon the signing of this Agreement all boys and girls associated with armed forces and groups in accordance with international norms.

Page 4, THE PARTIES HEREBY
(8) In areas of GoS control, the GoS police shall investigate all crimes, including those committed against women and children, and ensure the prosecution of the perpetrators and the protection of the victims. The GoS agrees to give UNAMID unimpeded access and information to monitor these activities.

Women, girls and gender

Participation
No specific mention.
Equality
No specific mention.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
International human rights standards
Page 4, THE PARTIES HEREBY
(7) The Parties shall refrain from recruiting children as soldiers or combatants, consistent with the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of Children, the Convention on the Right of the Child (CRC) and the Optional Protocol to the CRC on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict and agree to immediately release and hand over to the UN upon the signing of this Agreement all boys and girls associated with armed forces and groups in accordance with international norms
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
Gender-based violence/VAW (general)
Page 3, THE PARTIES HEREBY
(2) Agree to:
a - Immediately cease and refrain from any:
...
10. All acts and forms of gender-based violence;
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
DDR, army, parastatal or rebel forces
Page 4, THE PARTIES HEREBY
(7) The Parties shall refrain from recruiting children as soldiers or combatants, consistent with the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of Children, the Convention on the Right of the Child (CRC) and the Optional Protocol to the CRC on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict and agree to immediately release and hand over to the UN upon the signing of this Agreement all boys and girls associated with armed forces and groups in accordance with international norms
Development
No specific mention.
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other

The University of Edinburgh