Protocol Establishing the Somali New Federal Parliament

Country/entity
Somalia
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Protocol Establishing the Somali New Federal Parliament
Date
22/06/2012
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Somali Civil War (1991 - )
Originally spurred by centre-peripheral tensions, fighting broke out in 1981 between the regime of President Said Barre and the Somali National Movement, a militia primarily consisting of members from the northern Ishaq clan. Fighting intensified in the late 1980s as more clan-based militias arose. President Barre’s regime collapsed in late 1991 and as a result the UN intervened. However persistent attacks on the UN’s forces forced a withdrawal in 1994. From the mid- to late 1990s, the character of the conflict shifted as warlords fought for access to rents. Also during this period, two different peace agreements arose; the Sodere Declaration, which was mediated by Ethiopia and supported by IGAD, and the Cairo Accord, which was brokered by Egypt. Fighting, already noticeably lessened compared to the early 1990s, decreased and the more amicable environment paved the way for the Transitional Government to be formed in 2000 (replaced in 2004 by the Transitional Federal Government).

Nonetheless, opposition to the TFG arose in the form of the Islamic Courts Union (ICU), which by early 2006 had taken control of most of southern Somalia until they were ousted by an armed intervention by Ethiopia in December 2006. As a result, the ICU splintered. Hard-line ICU members formed the Takfiri organization, Harakat al-Shabaab al-Mujahideen, and launched a guerrilla campaign against the TFG. Another faction of the ICU fled to Djibouti and formed the Alliance for the Re-liberation of Somalia, which was absorbed into the ruling TFG after successful negotiations in 2007.

To deal with the new round of fighting, the UN-mandated AMISOM force was deployed in 2007. Since then, insecurity has fluctuated between the urban and rural areas as the al-Shabaab's territorial gains waver. Local militia leaders maintain de facto governance over communities. From 2009 to 2012, insecurity spilled-over into the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean when Somali pirates seized, looted and ransomed ships. In 2014, 'Operation Indian Ocean' was launched and in parallel with infighting among the al-Shabaab, the organisation's position in Somalia has diminished slightly. However, as evidenced by large-scale attacks by the al-Shabaab in northern Kenya throughout 2013-2015, the lack of security continues to destabilize the region. The al-Shabaab has been characterized as a spoiler in the Somali peace process and have therefore been placed outside of any negotiations.
Somali Civil War (1991 - ) )
Stage
Implementation/renegotiation (Implementation modalities)
Conflict nature
Government/territory
Peace process
94: Somalia Peace Process
Parties
President Sheikh Sharif Sheikh Ahmed of the Transitional Federal Government of Somalia; Honourable Sharif Hassan Sheikh Aden, Speaker of the Transitional Federal Parliament; Prime Minister Abdiweli Mohamed Ali; President Abdirahman Mohamed Mohamoud ‘Farole’ of Puntland; President Mohamed Ahmed Alin of Galmudug; and, representatives of Ahlu Sunna Wal Jama’a.
Third parties
The meeting was facilitated by the United Nations under the auspices of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Somalia, Ambassador Augustine P. Mahiga.
Description
The agreement implements previous commitments made by the signatories and sets out the terms for the establishment of the New Federal Parliament.

Agreement document
SO_120622_ProtocolFederalParliament.pdf

Main category
Page 2, ARTICLE 2 Establishment and Selection Process of the New Federal Parliament, 5. The Traditional Leaders shall consult with their clans and shall nominate 225 members for the House of the People of which at least 30 percent shall be women and 54 members for the Upper House of the New Federal Parliament based on the regional representation stipulated in Article 2.3.

Page 3, Article 3, New Federal Parliament Members, 1. The House of the People shall comprise 225 members of whom at least 30 percent must be women.

... 5. The Traditional Leaders, supported by the Technical Selection Committee who vets nominees, and in consultation with their clans and with different sectors of Somali civil society, including religious leaders, intellectuals, youth, women, and business people, shall select the members of the New Federal Parliament from among persons whom the Technical Selection Committee has vetted.




Women, girls and gender

Participation
Gender quotas
Page 2, ARTICLE 2 Establishment and Selection Process of the New Federal Parliament, 5. The Traditional Leaders shall consult with their clans and shall nominate 225 members for the House of the People of which at least 30 percent shall be women and 54 members for the Upper House of the New Federal Parliament based on the regional representation stipulated in Article 2.3.


Page 3, Article 3, New Federal Parliament Members, 1. The House of the People shall comprise 225 members of whom at least 30 percent must be women.
Effective participation
Page 3, Article 3, New Federal Parliament Members,
... 5. The Traditional Leaders, supported by the Technical Selection Committee who vets nominees, and in consultation with their clans and with different sectors of Somali civil society, including religious leaders, intellectuals, youth, women, and business people, shall select the members of the New Federal Parliament from among persons whom the Technical Selection Committee has vetted.
Equality
No specific mention.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
No specific mention.
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
Development
No specific mention.
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh