Nakuru County Peace Accord

Country/entity
Kenya
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Nakuru County Peace Accord
Date
19/08/2012
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/local conflict (Kenyan Post-Electoral Violence (2007 - 2008)
The conflict emerged as post-election violence. After the incumbent President Kibaki was declared the winner of the Kenyan presidential elections in December 2007, complaints of fraud and a structural disadvantage affecting his competitor Raila Odinga lead to outbreaks of severe ethno-political violence. After the first incidents in the Rift Valley region, mainly directed against the Kikuyu ethnic group – the traditional powerbase of Kibaki – the fighting spread to the cities of Nairobi and Mombasa. After two months, Kibaki and Odinga agreed on a power-sharing agreement that granted Odinga the post as a Prime Minister and ended the violence.

Kenyan Post-Electoral Violence (2007 - 2008) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - partial (Multiple issues)
Conflict nature
Government
Peace process
71: Kenya peace process
Parties
Representatives of the Agikuyu community; Representatives of Kalenjin community; Representatives of other communities in Nakuru County

Also: Co-chairs of the Elders Committees: Mr Samuel Maigua, Hon Wilson Leitich; Patrons: Daniel Kamau Kanyi EBS, Gideon Toroitish EBS; Coordinators (Secretariat): Maina Muhai, Andrew Yatich; Founders: Ndungu Gaithuma, Joshua K Toroitich; Civil Society Groups: Youth, Women, Civil Society, Business Community; County Peace Monitor

Third parties
Criteria listed for Witness, Joining Signatories and Welcoming Signatories.
List of potential additional signatories: Community chairs: Abaluhya, Abagusii, Akamba, Ameru, Luo, Maasai, Mijikenda, Ogeik, Somali, Turkana; District Chairs (by Community): Bahati, Gilgil, Kuresoi, Nakuru, Naivasha, Molo, Njoro, Rongai, Subakai
Description
This agreement aims to end long-running communal and election-related violence within the Nakuru County. It includes the following provisions: 1. purpose, 2. acknowledgement of causes and consequences of violence, 3. their code of Conduct, 4. follow-up, 5. dispute resolution, 6. Relationships with other processes and institutions, 7. Review of this Accord, 8. Walking forward.

Agreement document
KE_120819_NakuruPeaceAccord.pdf

Main category
Page 2, 1. Purpose:
1.a. In forming this Accord, we respect the many other communities, women and youth, persons with disabilities, businesses and organisations who share our lives in Nakuru County. Recognizing that they will have their own perspectives and interests, we are open to consultation with all in the hope that others will share the peace objectives of this Accord. (p. 2)

Page 3, 2. Acknowledgement of causes and consequences of violence:
...
c. ... People have already died, homes and businesses have been destroyed, women raped, children traumatised, families and whole communities have fled for their lives.

7. Relationships with women, youth, persons with disabilities and other processes
and institutions in civil society

Similarly, we acknowledge that all of the issues in this Accord will be relevant to, or
be the direct business of, faith organisations, families, women, youth, persons with
disabilities and other groups, and institutions of civil society.

Signatories (p. 9). The Civil Society heading includes a specific space for Women (along with Youth, Civil Society, and Business Community).

Page 6, 7. Relationships with women, youth, persons with disabilities and other processes and institutions in civil society:
Similarly, we acknowledge that all of the issues in this Accord will be relevant to, or be the direct business of, faith organisations, families, women, youth, persons with disabilities and other groups, and institutions of civil society. We will particularly engage with youth groups, given the substantial proportion of youth in Nakuru County and the challenges for youth in our society.

Women, girls and gender

Participation
No specific mention.
Equality
No specific mention.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
Infrastructure (general)
Page 6, 7. Relationships with women, youth, persons with disabilities and other processes and institutions in civil society
Similarly, we acknowledge that all of the issues in this Accord will be relevant to, or be the direct business of, faith organisations, families, women, youth, persons with disabilities and other groups, and institutions of civil society.
Reconciliation and peace
Page 2, 1. Purpose:
1.a. In forming this Accord, we respect the many other communities, women and youth, persons with disabilities, businesses and organisations who share our lives in Nakuru County. Recognizing that they will have their own perspectives and interests, we are open to consultation with all in the hope that others will share the peace objectives of this Accord.
Violence against women
Sexual violence
Page 3, 2. Acknowledgement of causes and consequences of violence:
...
c. ... People have already died, homes and businesses have been destroyed, women raped, children traumatised, families and whole communities have fled for their lives.
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
Development
No specific mention.
Implementation
Signing or witnessing agreement
Page 9, Signatories
The Civil Society heading includes a specific space for Women (along with Youth, Civil Society, and Business Community).
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh