Participacíon política: Apertura democrática para construir la paz

Country/entity
Colombia
Region
Americas
Agreement name
Participacíon política: Apertura democrática para construir la paz
Date
06/11/2013
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Colombian Conflict (1964 - )
The Colombian conflict is really a set of conflicts and the peace agreements reflect both different processes relating to different conflict groups and dyads, and processes taking place at different times in a complex peace process history. The Colombian civil war has its roots in the late 1940s and the violent infighting between liberal and the conservative factions. Emerging from the liberal tradition with a thorough grounding in nationalist communist ideology, the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia—People's Army (FARC) began its armed insurrection against the Colombian government in 1964. Other left-wing guerrillas emerged as well, most notably the socialist/populist M-19, which would later be integrated into the formal political system in the peace process of 1990s; the National Liberation Army (ELN), which has strong roots in liberation theology, and the Maoist Ejército Popular de Liberación (EPL) (also part of the 1990 process, less successfully). Several stages of peace processes were undertaken by the various sides, which were further complicated by the emergence of right-wing paramilitary ‘self-defence’ forces. The peace agreement between the Colombian government under President Uribe and the main alliance of the paramilitary groups, the United Self-Defence Forces of Colombia (AUC), concluded in 2005 and is still heavily disputed as several remnants are still active, but now subsumed under the heading ‘Bacrim’ (Bandas criminales). In addition, FARC and ELN maintain a military presence, but both demonstrate a strong interest in completing successful peace negotiations with the government, with the most recent agreements being between FARC and the Government.

Colombian Conflict (1964 - ) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - partial (Core issue)
Conflict nature
Government
Peace process
110: Colombia V - Santos
Parties
The National Government; the FARC - EP.
Third parties
Description
Joint draft on political participation, sub-heading 2. An agreement on political participation, deepending of democracy, encouraging new political forces (pluralism of parties and political movements) and spaces for participation, porhibition of the use of violence for political means, and an end to the destabilisation of democracy. Also addresses public money for partis and poltical movements, more transparency for the electoral process, electoral revision and reform, protection of the rights or political oppositions, special representation in Congress of regions most affected by the conflict, and under development, and conditions and guarantees so that armed organisations transform themselves into parties and political movements and take part in the exercise of power and present their projects and proposal as alternatives.

Agreement document
CO_131106_ParticipacionPolitica - tr.pdf

Agreement document (original language)
CO_130611_ParticipacionPolitica.pdf

Main category
Page 11, 2. Political Participation: Democratic Opening to build peace, 2.2. Democratic mechanisms for citizen participation, including direct participation of different levels and various topics, 2.2.4. Guarantees for reconciliation, coexistence, tolerance and non-stigmatisation, especially for political and social action in the framework of the civility.

With this objective, the Government will create a National Council for Reconciliation and Coexistence, which shall be composed of representatives of the Government, the Public Prosecutor, assigned political parties and movements, the new movement arising from the transition of the FARC – EP (to integrate the legal political activity),
social organisations and movements, including (among others) groups of women, peasants, trade unions, ethnic minorities, religious and educational sectors. The role of the Council is to advise and assist the Government in the implementation of mechanisms and actions that include:


Page 14, 2. Political Participation: Democratic Opening to build peace, 2.2. Democratic mechanisms for citizen participation, including direct participation of different levels and various topics, 2.2.6 . Policy for the strengthening of the democratic and participatory planning
a. Review the functions and the formation of Territorial Planning councils, in order to:

- Promote the participation of women in the Territorial Councils

Page 18, 2. Political Participation: Democratic Opening to build peace, 2.3 Effective Measures to promote greater participation in national, regional and local policy, in all sectors, and including the most vulnerable population on an equal footing with security guarantees, 2.3.5 . Promotion of a democratic and participatory political culture

Program for the promotion of women's participation and leadership in Politics,

Page 18, 2. Political Participation: Democratic Opening to build peace, 2.3 Effective Measures to promote greater participation in national, regional and local policy, in all sectors, and including the most vulnerable population on an equal footing with security guarantees, 2.3.6. Promotion of political representation of populations and areas particularly affected by the conflict and abandonment:

The candidates must be persons that live permanently in these territories or persons who have been displaced and are in the process to return. The candidates can be enrolled through significant groups of citizens or through organisations of the circumscription, such as organisations of farmers, victims (including displaced persons), women and social sectors that work toward peace building and the improvement of social conditions in the region, among others.

Page 19, 2. Political Participation: Democratic Opening to build peace, 2.3 Effective Measures to promote greater participation in national, regional and local policy, in all sectors, and including the most vulnerable population on an equal footing with security guarantees,
2.3.7. Promotion of the political and civic participation of women in the framework of this Agreement

The National Government and the FARC-EP recognises the important role that women play in conflict prevention, resolution and peace-building. They also acknowledge the need to promote and strengthen the participation of women in the political life, particularly in the context of the end of the conflict, where their leadership and equal participation in public decision-making processes, such as formulation, implementation, evaluation and control of the government policies. Women’s leadership and participation are necessary and essential to achieve a stable and lasting peace.

The National Government and the FARC-EP reject any form of discrimination against women and reaffirm that women’s contribution as political subjects in public life is vital to strengthening democracy and for peace-keeping and peacebuilding. In the implementation of what had been agreed upon in the point 2 of this Agreement*, a gender approach is guaranteed. Necessary positive measures will be designed and adopted to strengthen the participation and leadership of women, and generally promote the implementation of the aforementioned purposes. This gender-approach should be implemented without prejudice to the strengthening implementation of international commitments and national standards on this matter.


(p.11) 2.2.4. Garantías para la reconciliación, la convivencia, la tolerancia y la no estigmatización especialmente por razón de la acción política y social en el marco de la civilidad
….

Con ese objetivo el Gobierno creará un Consejo Nacional para la Reconciliación y la Convivencia, el cual estará integrado por representantes del Gobierno, el Ministerio Público, los que designen los partidos y movimientos políticos, incluido el que surja del tránsito de las FARC-EP a la actividad política legal, organizaciones y movimientos sociales, en particular de mujeres, campesinos, gremios, minorías étnicas, las iglesias, el sector educativo, entre otros. El Consejo tendrá como función asesorar y acompañar al Gobierno en la puesta en marcha de mecanismos y acciones que incluyen:
….

2.2.6. Política para el fortalecimiento de la planeación democrática y participativa
a. Revisar las funciones y la conformación de los Consejos Territoriales de Planeación, con fin de:
….
(p.13) - Promover la participación de la mujer en los Consejos Territoriales

2.3.5. Promoción de una cultura política democrática y participativa
….

(p.18) - Programa para la promoción de la participación y Liderazgo de la mujer en la política.

2.3.6. Promoción de la representación política de poblaciones y zonas especialmente afectadas por el conflicto y el abandono

Los candidatos en todo caso deberán ser personas que habiten regularmente en estos territorios o que hayan sido desplazadas de ellos y estén en proceso de retorno. Los candidatos podrán ser inscritos por grupos significativos de ciudadanos u organizaciones de la Circunscripci6n, tales como organizaciones de campesinos, victimas (incluyendo desplazados), mujeres y sectores sociales que trabajen en pro de la construcci6n de la paz y el mejoramiento de las condiciones sociales en la
regi6n, entre otros.

2.3.7. Promoción de la participación política y ciudadana de la mujer en el marco del presente Acuerdo
(p.19) El Gobierno Nacional y las FARC-EP reconocen el Importante papel que desempeñan las mujeres en la prevención y solución de los conflictos y en la consolidación de la paz, y la necesidad de promover y fortalecer la participación en la vida política de las mujeres, aún más en el marco del fin del conflicto, donde su liderazgo y participación en pie de igualdad en los procesos de toma de decisiones públicas, y en la formulación, ejecución, evaluación y control de las políticas gubernamentales son necesarias y esenciales para alcanzar una paz estable y duradera.

El Gobierno Nacional y las FARC-EP rechazan cualquier forma de discriminación contra la mujer y reafirman que el aporte de las mujeres como sujetos políticos en la vida pública es vital para el fortalecimiento de la democracia y para el mantenimiento y el fomento de la paz. En la implementación de todo lo acordado en el punto 2 del presente Acuerdo* se garantizará el enfoque de género, y se diseñarán y adoptarán las medidas afirmativas necesarias para fortalecer la participación y liderazgo de la mujer, y en general para promover el cumplimiento de los anteriores propósitos, Lo anterior sin perjuicio de fortalecer el cumplimiento de los compromisos internacionales y las normas nacionales sobre el particular.

Women, girls and gender

Participation
Effective participation
Page 11, 2. Political Participation: Democratic Opening to build peace, 2.2. Democratic mechanisms for citizen participation, including direct participation of different levels and various topics, 2.2.4. Guarantees for reconciliation, coexistence, tolerance and non-stigmatisation, especially for political and social action in the framework of the civility.

With this objective, the Government will create a National Council for Reconciliation and Coexistence, which shall be composed of representatives of the Government, the Public Prosecutor, assigned political parties and movements, the new movement arising from the transition of the FARC – EP (to integrate the legal political activity), social organisations and movements, including (among others) groups of women, peasants, trade unions, ethnic minorities, religious and educational sectors.

Page 14, 2. Political Participation: Democratic Opening to build peace, 2.2. Democratic mechanisms for citizen participation, including direct participation of different levels and various topics, 2.2.6 . Policy for the strengthening of the democratic and participatory planning
a. Review the functions and the formation of Territorial Planning councils, in order to:

- Promote the participation of women in the Territorial Councils

Page 18, 2. Political Participation: Democratic Opening to build peace, 2.3 Effective Measures to promote greater participation in national, regional and local policy, in all sectors, and including the most vulnerable population on an equal footing with security guarantees, 2.3.5 . Promotion of a democratic and participatory political culture

Program for the promotion of women's participation and leadership in Politics

Page 18, 2. Political Participation: Democratic Opening to build peace, 2.3 Effective Measures to promote greater participation in national, regional and local policy, in all sectors, and including the most vulnerable population on an equal footing with security guarantees, 2.3.6. Promotion of political representation of populations and areas particularly affected by the conflict and abandonment:

The candidates must be persons that live permanently in these territories or persons who have been displaced and are in the process to return. The candidates can be enrolled through significant groups of citizens or through organisations of the circumscription, such as organisations of farmers, victims (including displaced persons), women and social sectors that work toward peace building and the improvement of social conditions in the region, among others.

Page 19, 2. Political Participation: Democratic Opening to build peace, 2.3 Effective Measures to promote greater participation in national, regional and local policy, in all sectors, and including the most vulnerable population on an equal footing with security guarantees,
2.3.7. Promotion of the political and civic participation of women in the framework of this Agreement
The National Government and the FARC-EP recognises the important role that women play in conflict prevention, resolution and peace-building. They also acknowledge the need to promote and strengthen the participation of women in the political life, particularly in the context of the end of the conflict, where their leadership and equal participation in public decision-making processes, such as formulation, implementation, evaluation and control of the government policies. Women’s leadership and participation are necessary and essential to achieve a stable and lasting peace.
The National Government and the FARC-EP reject any form of discrimination against women and reaffirm that women’s contribution as political subjects in public life is vital to strengthening democracy and for peace-keeping and peacebuilding. In the implementation of what had been agreed upon in the point 2 of this Agreement*, a gender approach is guaranteed. Necessary positive measures will be designed and adopted to strengthen the participation and leadership of women, and generally promote the implementation of the aforementioned purposes. This gender-approach should be implemented without prejudice to the strengthening implementation of international commitments and national standards on this matter.
Equality
No specific mention.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
No specific mention.
Transitional justice
Past and gender
Page 11, 2. Political Participation: Democratic Opening to build peace, 2.2. Democratic mechanisms for citizen participation, including direct participation of different levels and various topics, 2.2.4. Guarantees for reconciliation, coexistence, tolerance and non-stigmatisation, especially for political and social action in the framework of the civility.

With this objective, the Government will create a National Council for Reconciliation and Coexistence, which shall be composed of representatives of the Government, the Public Prosecutor, assigned political parties and movements, the new movement arising from the transition of the FARC – EP (to integrate the legal political activity), social organisations and movements, including (among others) groups of women, peasants, trade unions, ethnic minorities, religious and educational sectors. The role of the Council is to advise and assist the Government in the implementation of mechanisms and actions that include:
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
Development
No specific mention.
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh