Solución al Problema de las Drogas Ilícitas

Country/entity
Colombia
Region
Americas
Agreement name
Solución al Problema de las Drogas Ilícitas
Date
16/05/2014
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Colombian Conflict (1964 - )
The Colombian conflict is really a set of conflicts and the peace agreements reflect both different processes relating to different conflict groups and dyads, and processes taking place at different times in a complex peace process history. The Colombian civil war has its roots in the late 1940s and the violent infighting between liberal and the conservative factions. Emerging from the liberal tradition with a thorough grounding in nationalist communist ideology, the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia—People's Army (FARC) began its armed insurrection against the Colombian government in 1964. Other left-wing guerrillas emerged as well, most notably the socialist/populist M-19, which would later be integrated into the formal political system in the peace process of 1990s; the National Liberation Army (ELN), which has strong roots in liberation theology, and the Maoist Ejército Popular de Liberación (EPL) (also part of the 1990 process, less successfully). Several stages of peace processes were undertaken by the various sides, which were further complicated by the emergence of right-wing paramilitary ‘self-defence’ forces. The peace agreement between the Colombian government under President Uribe and the main alliance of the paramilitary groups, the United Self-Defence Forces of Colombia (AUC), concluded in 2005 and is still heavily disputed as several remnants are still active, but now subsumed under the heading ‘Bacrim’ (Bandas criminales). In addition, FARC and ELN maintain a military presence, but both demonstrate a strong interest in completing successful peace negotiations with the government, with the most recent agreements being between FARC and the Government.

Colombian Conflict (1964 - ) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - partial (Core issue)
Conflict nature
Government
Peace process
110: Colombia V - Santos
Parties
The National Government; the FARC - EP.
Third parties
Description
This agreements is a joint draft on solutions to the problems of illegal drugs under sub-heading 4 of the General Agreement.

Agreement document
CO_140516_DrogasIlicitas-tr.pdf

Agreement document (original language)
CO_140516_DrogasIlicitas.pdf

Main category
Page 2, Untitled Preamble,
...These new policies will have a general approach based on human rights and public health, differentiated and taking gender into account. Adjustments will be made over time based on evidence, the lessons of good practices and the recommendations of specialised national and international experts and organisations. ...

Page 4, Untitled Preamble,
... The solution to the problem of illegal drugs also requires addressing the issue of the use of illegal drugs based on the joint commitment and work of the authorities, the community and families for a policy to promote health, prevention, the reduction of damage, integrated care and social inclusion for users of illegal drugs, with a differentiated and gender-based approach. ...

Page 8, 4.Solution to the problem of illicit drugs, 4.1. Substitution programmes for illegal crop. Comprehensive plans of development with the participation of communities in the design, implementation and evaluation of the substitution programs and environmental recovery for areas affected by these crops, 4.1.3. Description and elements of the Comprehensive National Program for replacement of illicit crops:

It will ensure the involvement of women in the planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of the comprehensive plans of replacement and alternative development.

Page 10, 4.Solution to the problem of illicit drugs, 4.1. Substitution programmes for illegal crop. Comprehensive plans of development with the participation of communities in the design, implementation and evaluation of the substitution programs and environmental recovery for areas affected by these crops, 4.1.3. Description and elements of the Comprehensive National Program for replacement of illicit crops, 4.1.3.5 . Participative Construction and development of comprehensive plans for alternative development and replacement (PISDA):

Community assemblies:
….
The community assemblies shall be composed of all communities in the affected area, including producers of illicit crops. They should ensure the effective participation of women in these spaces. In each municipality, the assemblies shall be formed together with communities according to territory and population characteristics necessities, and define its territorial scope.

Page 14, 4.Solution to the problem of illicit drugs, 4.1. Substitution programmes for illegal crop. Comprehensive plans of development with the participation of communities in the design, implementation and evaluation of the substitution programs and environmental recovery for areas affected by these crops, 4.1.3. Description and elements of the Comprehensive National Program for replacement of illicit crops, 4.1.3.6. Components of the comprehensive plans of replacement:

3. For the community in general:
a. Early Childhood: A programme of rural nursery centres will be developed in order to facilitate the access to employment opportunities for women-headed families and contribute to early childhood food security, in counties that were affected by illicit crops.

Page 19, 4.Solution to the problem of illicit drugs, 4.2 Consumption prevention and Public Health Programme, 4.2.1. National Program for Comprehensive intervention against the consumption of illicit drugs,
4.2.1.4. Participatory action plans with territorial and population approach:
….
Efforts for harm reduction based on evidence, with the aim to minimise the negative impact of drug use for the consumer, his family and community, by prioritising the most vulnerable populations such as street people, women and the prison population.

Pages 23-24, 4.2.1.1 Principles,
The national policy for the use of illegal drugs will be guided by the following principles: ...
• Differentiated and gender approach: in the context of the respect for human rights, a differentiated approach is required to ensure actions that are implemented for the use of illegal drugs meet the realities of users of illegal drugs and are effective and sustainable, defining the most vulnerable populations in terms of variables such as age groups, gender, socio-economic status and geographic location. ...

Pages 26-27, Article 4.2.1.6 Generating knowledge on the use of illegal drugs
The following measures will be put in place to ensure sufficient and up-to-date information on the promotion of health, prevention and integrated care for the use of illegal drugs to support decision-making and as an input for the evidenced-based design, implementation, monitoring, evaluation and adjustment of policy:
• Specialised research and studies on the use of illegal drugs, including a differentiated gender and age-group approach. ...


4.1.3. Descripción y elementos del Programa Nacional Integral de Sustitución de Cultivos de Uso Ilícito
(p.8)… Se garantizará la participación de la mujer en la planeación, ejecución, seguimiento y evaluación de los planes integrales de sustitución y desarrollo alternativo.

4.1.3.5. Construcción participativa y desarrollo de los planes integrales comunitarios y municipales de sustitución y desarrollo alterativo (PISDA):
….
Asambleas comunitarias:
….
(p.10) Las asambleas comunitarias estarán integradas por todas las comunidades de la zona afectada, incluyendo a Ios productores de cultivos de uso ilícito, y garantizarán la participación efectiva de la mujer en estos espacios. En cada municipio de acuerdo con las características del territorio y la población, se conformarán en conjunto con las comunidades tas asambleas necesarias, especificando su ámbito territorial.

4.1.3.6. Componentes de los planes integrales de sustitución:

(p.14) 3. Para la comunidad en general:
a. Primera Infancia: con el fin de facilitar el acceso a oportunidades laborales a las mujeres cabeza de familia y contribuir a la seguridad alimentaria de la primera infancia, en las veredas afectadas por cultivos de uso ilícito se desarrollará un programa de guarderías infantiles rurales.

4.2.1.4. Planes de acción participativos con enfoque territorial y poblacional:
….
(p.19) Acciones de reducción del daño basadas en la evidencia, orientadas a minimizar el impacto negativo del consumo de drogas en el consumidor, en la familia y en la comunidad, priorizando poblaciones más vulnerables como habitantes de calle, mujeres y población carcelaria.

Women, girls and gender

Participation
Effective participation
Page 8, 4.Solution to the problem of illicit drugs, 4.1. Substitution programmes for illegal crop. Comprehensive plans of development with the participation of communities in the design, implementation and evaluation of the substitution programs and environmental recovery for areas affected by these crops, 4.1.3. Description and elements of the Comprehensive National Program for replacement of illicit crops:

It will ensure the involvement of women in the planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of the comprehensive plans of replacement and alternative development.

Equality
Social equality
Page 14, 4.Solution to the problem of illicit drugs, 4.1. Substitution programmes for illegal crop. Comprehensive plans of development with the participation of communities in the design, implementation and evaluation of the substitution programs and environmental recovery for areas affected by these crops, 4.1.3. Description and elements of the Comprehensive National Program for replacement of illicit crops, 4.1.3.6. Components of the comprehensive plans of replacement:

3. For the community in general:
a. Early Childhood: A programme of rural nursery centres will be developed in order to facilitate the access to employment opportunities for women-headed families and contribute to early childhood food security, in counties that were affected by illicit crops.

Page 19, 4.Solution to the problem of illicit drugs, 4.2 Consumption prevention and Public Health Programme, 4.2.1. National Program for Comprehensive intervention against the consumption of illicit drugs,
4.2.1.4. Participatory action plans with territorial and population approach:
….
Efforts for harm reduction based on evidence, with the aim to minimise the negative impact of drug use for the consumer, his family and community, by prioritising the most vulnerable populations such as street people, women and the prison population.
Particular groups of women
Other
Page 14, 4.Solution to the problem of illicit drugs, 4.1. Substitution programmes for illegal crop. Comprehensive plans of development with the participation of communities in the design, implementation and evaluation of the substitution programs and environmental recovery for areas affected by these crops, 4.1.3. Description and elements of the Comprehensive National Program for replacement of illicit crops, 4.1.3.6. Components of the comprehensive plans of replacement:

3. For the community in general:
a. Early Childhood: A programme of rural nursery centres will be developed in order to facilitate the access to employment opportunities for women-headed families and contribute to early childhood food security, in counties that were affected by illicit crops.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
No specific mention.
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
Development
Health (general)
Page 19, 4.Solution to the problem of illicit drugs, 4.2 Consumption prevention and Public Health Programme, 4.2.1. National Program for Comprehensive intervention against the consumption of illicit drugs, 4.2.1.4. Participatory action plans with territorial and population approach: …. Efforts for harm reduction based on evidence, with the aim to minimise the negative impact of drug use for the consumer, his family and community, by prioritising the most vulnerable populations such as street people, women and the prison population.
Implementation
Women's role and consideration in implementation of the agreement
Page 8, 4.Solution to the problem of illicit drugs, 4.1. Substitution programmes for illegal crop. Comprehensive plans of development with the participation of communities in the design, implementation and evaluation of the substitution programs and environmental recovery for areas affected by these crops, 4.1.3. Description and elements of the Comprehensive National Program for replacement of illicit crops:

It will ensure the involvement of women in the planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of the comprehensive plans of replacement and alternative development.
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh