Hacia un Nuevo Campo Colombiano: Reforma Rural Integral

Country/entity
Colombia
Region
Americas
Agreement name
Hacia un Nuevo Campo Colombiano: Reforma Rural Integral
Date
06/06/2014
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Colombian Conflict (1964 - )
The Colombian conflict is really a set of conflicts and the peace agreements reflect both different processes relating to different conflict groups and dyads, and processes taking place at different times in a complex peace process history. The Colombian civil war has its roots in the late 1940s and the violent infighting between liberal and the conservative factions. Emerging from the liberal tradition with a thorough grounding in nationalist communist ideology, the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia—People's Army (FARC) began its armed insurrection against the Colombian government in 1964. Other left-wing guerrillas emerged as well, most notably the socialist/populist M-19, which would later be integrated into the formal political system in the peace process of 1990s; the National Liberation Army (ELN), which has strong roots in liberation theology, and the Maoist Ejército Popular de Liberación (EPL) (also part of the 1990 process, less successfully). Several stages of peace processes were undertaken by the various sides, which were further complicated by the emergence of right-wing paramilitary ‘self-defence’ forces. The peace agreement between the Colombian government under President Uribe and the main alliance of the paramilitary groups, the United Self-Defence Forces of Colombia (AUC), concluded in 2005 and is still heavily disputed as several remnants are still active, but now subsumed under the heading ‘Bacrim’ (Bandas criminales). In addition, FARC and ELN maintain a military presence, but both demonstrate a strong interest in completing successful peace negotiations with the government, with the most recent agreements being between FARC and the Government.

Colombian Conflict (1964 - ) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - partial (Core issue)
Conflict nature
Government
Peace process
110: Colombia V - Santos
Parties
Delegates of Government of the Republic of Colombia (The National Government) and the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC-EP)

Los delegados del Gobierno de la República de Colombia (el Gobierno Nacional) y las Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia (FARC-EP)
Third parties
Description
This agreement provides for a place an Integral Rural Reform with the aim to put an end on the conflict, lay the bases for a structural transformation of the countryside and improve the conditions of the rural population. It defines I. its principles, II. Access and Use. Unproductive lands. Formalisation of property ownership. Agricultural Frontiers and the protection of reservation zones, III. Development programmes with territorial approach, IV. National Plans for the Integral Rural Reform

Agreement document
CO_140606_ReformaRural - tr.pdf

Agreement document (original language)
CO_140606_ReformaRural.pdf

Main category
Page 1, Toward a New Colombian countryside: Integral Rural Reform:
It will be considered:

that a true structural transformation of the countryside requires measures to promote the proper use of land, in accordance with its designated use and to stimulate the formalisation, restitution and equitable distribution of land. It should also ensure progressive access to rural property for inhabitants of the countryside, and in particular to women and the most vulnerable population. Such transformation should regularise and democratise property rights, promote the redistribution of land, in order to fulfil its social function ….

Page 2, Toward a New Colombian countryside: Integral Rural Reform:
It will be considered:

In relation to food and nutrition, the IRR (Integral Rural Reform) will ensure sufficient availability and access of opportunity, quantity, quality and price for food necessary for good nutrition, for all rural and urban citizens in Colombia, especially for boys and girls, pregnant and lactating women, and the elderly. This will be achieved primarily by promoting the production of food and income generation.

Page 3, Principles, 3. Prioritisation:
Integral agricultural development policy will be universal and its implementation will prioritise the most disadvantaged and vulnerable populations and territories, including the communities most affected by poverty, neglect and the conflict. The policy will focus on small and medium producers. Particular attention will be paid to the rights of children, women and the elderly.


Page 5, 1. Access and Use. Unproductive lands. Formalisation of property ownership. Agricultural Frontiers and the protection of reservation zones

1.3. Beneficiaries: the beneficiaries of the plan of free allocation, integral subsidy and special credit will be agricultural workers without land or with insufficient land. Women heads of household and displaced populations will be prioritised. Other beneficiaries may include Agricultural workers' associations without land or with insufficient land, as well as people and communities that participate in settlement and resettlement programs with the aim, among others, to protect the environment, replace illicit crops and strengthen food production.

Page 5, 1. Access and Use. Unproductive lands. Formalisation of property ownership. Agricultural Frontiers and the protection of reservation zones, 1.4. Integral Access:
In the development of principles of well-being, good-living, integrity as well as access to land, the National Government will make available, to male and female beneficiaries of the Land Fund, support plans for housing, technical assistance, capacity building, soil improvement and land recovery where necessary, production projects, commercialisation and access to means of production that increase the value, and scale up the provision of public goods within the framework of the Agricultural Development Programs with Integral Territorial Approach (PDET).

Page 13, 3. National Plans for the Integral Rural Reform, 3.2. Social development: health, education, housing, poverty eradication,
3.2.1 Health:

b. The adoption of a targeted gender approach, including special measures for pregnant women, boys and girls in the prevention of disease and the promotion of health care.

Page 14, 3. National Plans for the Integral Rural Reform, 3.2. Social development: health, education, housing, poverty eradication, 3.2.2. Rural Education:

i. The promotion of vocational training for women in non-traditional vocations.

Page 15, 3. National Plans for the Integral Rural Reform, 3.2. Social Development: health, education, housing, poverty eradication, 3.2.3. Shelter and drinking water:

c. The allocation of subsidies for construction and home improvement, will give priority to the population in extreme poverty, the victims, the beneficiaries of the land distribution plan, and women head of family. The amounts of the non-repayable grant, which may cover up to the entire housing solution, shall be define in accordance with the requirements and costs of construction in each region, in order to ensure conditions of decent housing.


Page 19, 3. National Plans for the Integral Rural Reform, 3.3 Incentives to agricultural production, solidarity and cooperative economy, technical assistance, grants, credit, income generation, commerce, labor formalisation, 3.3.5. Formalisation of rural labour and social protection:

e. The promotion of Women into non-traditional productive areas

Page 20, 3. National Plans for the Integral Rural Reform, 3.4. Food Security (Sovereignty) System:

d. Programmes against hunger and malnutrition will be developed at a national scale, particularly for the rural population in conditions of poverty, pregnant and breastfeeding women, children, and for the elderly. These programs include intensive plans for the most vulnerable rural population and those in extreme poverty.


(p.1) Que una verdadera transformación estructural del campo requiere adoptar medidas para promover el uso adecuado de la tierra de acuerdo con su vocación y estimular la formalización,
restitución y distribución equitativa de la misma, garantizando el acceso progresivo a la propiedad rural de los habitantes del campo y en particular a las mujeres y la población más vulnerable, regularizando y democratizando la propiedad y promoviendo la desconcentración de la tierra, en cumplimiento de su función social….

(p.2) Que la RRI en materia de alimentos y nutrición pretende asegurar para todos los ciudadanos rurales y urbanos en Colombia disponibilidad y acceso suficiente en oportunidad, cantidad, calidad y precio a los alimentos necesarios para una buena nutrición, especialmente la de los niños y niñas, mujeres gestantes y lactantes y adultos mayores, promoviendo prioritariamente la producción de alimentos y la generación de ingresos.
….
Principios:
(p.3) 3. Priorización: la política de desarrollo agrario integral es universal y su ejecución prioriza la población y los territorios más necesitados y vulnerables, y las comunidades más afectadas por la miseria, el abandono y el conflicto, y hace énfasis en el pequeño y mediano productor. Especial atención merecen los derechos de los niños, las mujeres y los ancianos.

1. Acceso y Uso. Tierras Improductivas. Formalización de la propiedad. Frontera agrícola y protección de zonas de reserva.

(p.7) 1.3. Beneficiarios: los beneficiarios del plan de adjudicación gratuita, y del subsidio Integral y el crédito especial, serán trabajadores con vocación agraria sin tierra o con tierra insuficiente, priorizando a la mujer cabeza de familia y a la población desplazada. También podrán ser beneficiarias asociaciones de trabajadores con vocación agraria sin tierra o con tierra insuficiente, así como personas y comunidades que participen en programas de asentamiento y reasentamiento con el fin, entre otros, de proteger el medio ambiente, sustituir cultivos ilícitos y fortalecer la producción alimentaria.


1.4. Acceso integral: en desarrollo de los principios de bienestar y buen vivir, y de integralidad, además del acceso a tierra, et Gobierno Nacional pondrá a disposición de los hombres y mujeres beneficiarios del Fondo de Tierras, planes de acompañamiento en vivienda, asistencia técnica, capacitación, adecuación de tierras y recuperación de suelos donde sea necesario, proyectos productivos, comercialización y acceso a medios de producción que permitan agregar valor, entre otros, y escalará la provisión de bienes públicos en el marco de los Programas de Desarrollo Agrario Integral con Enfoque Territorial, en adelante PDET.
….
3. Planes Nacionales para la Reforma Rural Integral

(p.13) 3.2. Desarrollo social: salud, educación, vivienda, erradicación de la pobreza
3.2.1 Salud:…
b. La adopción de un enfoque diferencial y de género, incluyendo medidas especiales para mujeres gestantes y los niños y niñas, en la prevención, promoción y atención en salud.

(p.14) 3.2.2. Educación rural:…
i. La promoción de la formación profesional de las mujeres en disciplinas no tradicionales para ellas.

(p.15) 3.2.3. Vivienda y agua potable:…
c. El otorgamiento de subsidios para la construcción y para el mejoramiento de vivienda, que prioricen a la población en pobreza extrema, las víctimas, los beneficiarios del Plan de distribución de tierras y a la mujer cabeza de familia. Los montos del subsidio no reembolsable, que podrán cubrir hasta la totalidad de la solución de vivienda, se fijarán atendiendo los requerimientos y costos de construcción en cada región, con el fin de garantizar condiciones de vivienda digna.

3.3.5. Formalización laboral rural y protección social:…
(p.19)
e. La promoción de la vinculación laboral de las mujeres en áreas productivas no tradicionales.

(p.20) 3.4. Sistema de seguridad (soberanía) alimentaria:…
d. El desarrollo de programas contra el hambre y la desnutrición con cobertura nacional, especialmente para la población rural en condiciones de miseria, las mujeres gestantes y lactantes, niños y niñas, y para la tercera edad. Estos programas incluirán planes de choque pare la población rural más vulnerable y en pobreza extreme.

Women, girls and gender

Participation
No specific mention.
Equality
Social equality
Page 1, Toward a New Colombian countryside: Integral Rural Reform:
It will be considered:

that a true structural transformation of the countryside requires measures to promote the proper use of land, in accordance with its designated use and to stimulate the formalisation, restitution and equitable distribution of land. It should also ensure progressive access to rural property for inhabitants of the countryside, and in particular to women and the most vulnerable population. Such transformation should regularise and democratise property rights, promote the redistribution of land, in order to fulfil its social function ….

Page 2, Toward a New Colombian countryside: Integral Rural Reform:
It will be considered:

In relation to food and nutrition, the IRR (Integral Rural Reform) will ensure sufficient availability and access of opportunity, quantity, quality and price for food necessary for good nutrition, for all rural and urban citizens in Colombia, especially for boys and girls, pregnant and lactating women, and the elderly. This will be achieved primarily by promoting the production of food and income generation.

Page 5, 1. Access and Use. Unproductive lands. Formalisation of property ownership. Agricultural Frontiers and the protection of reservation zones

1.3. Beneficiaries: the beneficiaries of the plan of free allocation, integral subsidy and special credit will be agricultural workers without land or with insufficient land. Women heads of household and displaced populations will be prioritised. Other beneficiaries may include Agricultural workers' associations without land or with insufficient land, as well as people and communities that participate in settlement and resettlement programs with the aim, among others, to protect the environment, replace illicit crops and strengthen food production.

Page 13, 3. National Plans for the Integral Rural Reform, 3.2. Social development: health, education, housing, poverty eradication,
3.2.1 Health:

b. The adoption of a targeted gender approach, including special measures for pregnant women, boys and girls in the prevention of disease and the promotion of health care.

Page 15, 3. National Plans for the Integral Rural Reform, 3.2. Social Development: health, education, housing, poverty eradication, 3.2.3. Shelter and drinking water:

c. The allocation of subsidies for construction and home improvement, will give priority to the population in extreme poverty, the victims, the beneficiaries of the land distribution plan, and women head of family. The amounts of the non-repayable grant, which may cover up to the entire housing solution, shall be define in accordance with the requirements and costs of construction in each region, in order to ensure conditions of decent housing.

Particular groups of women
Pregnancy/maternity
Page 2, Toward a New Colombian countryside: Integral Rural Reform: It will be considered:
… In relation to food and nutrition, the IRR (Integral Rural Reform) will ensure sufficient availability and access of opportunity, quantity, quality and price for food necessary for good nutrition, for all rural and urban citizens in Colombia, especially for boys and girls, pregnant and lactating women, and the elderly. This will be achieved primarily by promoting the production of food and income generation.

Page 13, 3. National Plans for the Integral Rural Reform, 3.2. Social development: health, education, housing, poverty eradication, 3.2.1 Health:
… b. The adoption of a targeted gender approach, including special measures for pregnant women, boys and girls in the prevention of disease and the promotion of health care.


Page 20, 3. National Plans for the Integral Rural Reform, 3.4. Food Security (Sovereignty) System: … d. Programmes against hunger and malnutrition will be developed at a national scale, particularly for the rural population in conditions of poverty, pregnant and breastfeeding women, children, and for the elderly. These programs include intensive plans for the most vulnerable rural population and those in extreme poverty.
Other
Page 2, Toward a New Colombian countryside: Integral Rural Reform:
It will be considered:

In relation to food and nutrition, the IRR (Integral Rural Reform) will ensure sufficient availability and access of opportunity, quantity, quality and price for food necessary for good nutrition, for all rural and urban citizens in Colombia, especially for boys and girls, pregnant and lactating women, and the elderly. This will be achieved primarily by promoting the production of food and income generation.

Page 13, 3. National Plans for the Integral Rural Reform, 3.2. Social development: health, education, housing, poverty eradication,
3.2.1 Health:

b. The adoption of a targeted gender approach, including special measures for pregnant women, boys and girls in the prevention of disease and the promotion of health care.

Page 15, 3. National Plans for the Integral Rural Reform, 3.2. Social Development: health, education, housing, poverty eradication, 3.2.3. Shelter and drinking water:

c. The allocation of subsidies for construction and home improvement, will give priority to the population in extreme poverty, the victims, the beneficiaries of the land distribution plan, and women head of family. The amounts of the non-repayable grant, which may cover up to the entire housing solution, shall be define in accordance with the requirements and costs of construction in each region, in order to ensure conditions of decent housing.

Page 20, 3. National Plans for the Integral Rural Reform, 3.4. Food Security (Sovereignty) System:

d. Programmes against hunger and malnutrition will be developed at a national scale, particularly for the rural population in conditions of poverty, pregnant and breastfeeding women, children, and for the elderly. These programs include intensive plans for the most vulnerable rural population and those in extreme poverty.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
No specific mention.
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
Development
General
Page 5, 1. Access and Use. Unproductive lands. Formalisation of property ownership. Agricultural Frontiers and the protection of reservation zones, 1.4. Integral Access:
In the development of principles of well-being, good-living, integrity as well as access to land, the National Government will make available, to male and female beneficiaries of the Land Fund, support plans for housing, technical assistance, capacity building, soil improvement and land recovery where necessary, production projects, commercialisation and access to means of production that increase the value, and scale up the provision of public goods within the framework of the Agricultural Development Programs with Integral Territorial Approach (PDET).
Education
Page 14, 3. National Plans for the Integral Rural Reform, 3.2. Social development: health, education, housing, poverty eradication, 3.2.2. Rural Education:

i. The promotion of vocational training for women in non-traditional vocations.
Health (general)
Page 13, 3. National Plans for the Integral Rural Reform, 3.2. Social development: health, education, housing, poverty eradication,
3.2.1 Health:

b. The adoption of a targeted gender approach, including special measures for pregnant women, boys and girls in the prevention of disease and the promotion of health care.

Page 20, 3. National Plans for the Integral Rural Reform, 3.4. Food Security (Sovereignty) System:

d. Programmes against hunger and malnutrition will be developed at a national scale, particularly for the rural population in conditions of poverty, pregnant and breastfeeding women, children, and for the elderly. These programs include intensive plans for the most vulnerable rural population and those in extreme poverty.
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh