Accord de cessation des hostilités en République Centrafricaine (Brazzaville Agreement on Cessation of Hostilities)

Central African Republic
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Accord de cessation des hostilités en République Centrafricaine (Brazzaville Agreement on Cessation of Hostilities)
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Interim arrangement
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Central African Republic Conflicts (1996 - )
The Central African Republic conflict is one of a set of regionally connected conflicts addressed by the African Great Lakes process. After the country gained independence from France in 1960 it has been ruled by a sequence of autocratic leaders that principally gained power through coups. Since the mid-1990s several waves of internal conflict took place in the Central African Republic, primarily along tribal, and later-on increasingly sectarian, lines. In 1996 and 1997, French troops and soldiers from neighbouring countries intervened to end a mutiny in the capital, Bangui, by factions of the army. The fighting was predominantly along tribal lines, with southern tribes in revolt against the ‘northern’ government. A UN mission was installed in 1998 to secure the truce.
After General Bozizé took control of the country after several coup attempts in 2003, a ‘bush war’ began led by armed opposition forces. From late 2006 onward, government troops with French military support severely weakened the rebels. Following this, a number of agreements were signed during 2007-2008, but not all factions have accepted them. In 2011, Bozizé was re-elected in supposedly fraudulent elections, which resulted in a new wave of uprisings. Séléka, an alliance of northern rebel groups, took over parts of the country and forced Bozizé to agree to a power-sharing deal. However, after this agreement broke down, Séléka took control of Bangui and Bozizé had to flee the country in 2013. Leader of Séléka, Michel Djotodia, took office and officially disbanded Séléka. However, continual violence between ex-Séléka groups and opposing militias, collectively known as ‘anti-balaka’, persisted and Djotodia was forced to resign less than a year later. Catherine Samba-Panza was installed as interim president until Faustin Archange Touadéra was elected in January 2016. In February 2019 an agreement was signed between the government and fourteen armed groups, including ex-Seleka groups, committed to disarmament. However, violence between ex-Seleka groups and anti-balaka continues.
Central African Republic Conflicts (1996 - ) )
Ceasefire/related (Ceasefire)
Conflict nature
Peace process
14: CAR: coups and rebellions process
Does this need new name?
Ont Signé: Les ex-Combattants et Eléments armés

Pour le Front Populaire pour la Renaissance de la Centrafrique (FPRC),
Géneral Mohamed MOUSSA DHAFANE

Pour les anti-Balaka,
Monsieur Patrice Edouard NGAISSONA

Pour le Front Democratique du Peuple Centrafricain (FDPC),
Monsieur André Le-Gaillard RINGUI

Pour Révolution et Justice (RJ),
Monsieur Armel SAYO

Pour le Mouvement de Libération Centrafricaine pour la Justice (MLCJ),

Pour l'Union des forces Républicaines (UPR)
Monsieur Florian N'DJADDER BEDAY

Pour l'Union des Forces Républiques Fondamentales (UFRF)
Monsieur Dieu-benit GBEYA-KIKOBE
Third parties
En présence de:

Gouvernement de Transition:

Le Ministre des Affaires Etrangères, de li'Integration Africaine et de la Francophonie,
Son Excellence Toussaint KONGO-DOUDOU

Conseil National de Transition,
Honorable Alexandre Ferdinand N'GUENDET

Alternative Citoyenne pour la Démocratie et la Paix (ACDP)
Monsieur Enoch DERANT LAKOUE

Ancienne Majorité Présidentielle
Monsieur Laurent NGON-BABA

Groupement des Partis Politiques/Républicains Travaillistes Légalistes (GPP/RTL),
Monsieur Bertin BEA

Union des Partis Politiques pour la Reconstruction Nationale (UPPRN),
Pierre Abraham MBOKANI

Rassemblement des autres Partis Politiques
Monsieur Auguste BOUKANGA

Partis Politiques sans Plateforme
Monsieur Henri GOUANDIA

Personnalités Indépendantes:

- Madame Alphonsine BOGANDA-YANGONGO

- Monsieur Stève KOBA

Conseil National de la Jeunesse (CNJ)

- Monsieur Félix Wulfrand RIVA
- Monsieur Abdel-Aziz AROUFAЇ

Organisation des Femmes Centrafricaines (OFCA)
Madame Marie-Annick SERVICE

Comité Consultatif des Femmes Leaders,

Haut Conseil de la Communication,
Monsieur José Richard POUAMBI

Syndicats des Travailleurs,
Monsieur Michel LOUDEGUE

Conféderation Nationale des Agriculteurs et éleveurs
Madame Brigitte ANDARA

Confessions Religieuses:
- Monseigneur Dieudonné NZAPALAINGA

Conseil Inter-ONG en Centrafrique (CIONGCA)
Monsieur Célestin NGAKOLA

Groupement Interprofessionnel Centrafrique (GICA),

La Diaspora,
Monsieur Maurice OUAMBO

Déplacés Internes,
Monsieur Jean Clause MALABI

Communautés à Risques:

La Médiation Internationale
Pour Les Nations Unies
Le Représentant Spécial du Secrétaire Général de l'ONU en Afrique Centrale,
Monsieur Abdoulaye BATHILY

Pour L'Union Africaine
Le Vice-Médiateur,

Pour la CEEAC
Le Rapporteur
Le Secrétaire Général de la CEEAC
Ambassadeur Ahmad ALLAM-MI

Le Médiateur international
Le Président de la République du Congo
Son Excellence Monsieur Denis SASSOU N'GUESSO
A Short agreement ceasing hostilities between the conflict parties. The agreement covers ceasefire provisions, DDR, and some broader humanitarian issues.

Agreement document
CF_140723_Accord-Cessation-Hostilities_tr.pdf []

Agreement document (original language)
CF_140723_Accord-cessation-hostilites.pdf []

Main category
Considering the ongoing desire of Her Excellency Madame Catherine SAMBA-PANZA, Head of the State of Transition, reiterated in various speeches (Brussels, Paris, Oslo, Malabo) and her last address to the Nation on July 4, 2014, to promote political dialogue and national reconciliation among all the sons and daughters of Central Africa

Page 2, Article 2
The cessation of hostilities implies:
• The cessation of all acts of violence against civil and military populations, and respect for and protection of human rights. These acts of violence include summary executions, torture, harassment, burning of villages and public and private property, destruction of religious buildings, pillage, the arbitrary detention and execution of civilian and military personnel, recruitment of child soldiers, sexual violence and arming civilians;

Page 3, The ex-combatants and Central African armed elements agree the following, Article 5
The parties also agree to:
b. Prohibit and condemn all violence, including sexual violence, against civilian and military populations
d. To end and prevent any future violations of children, in particular murder, mutilation, exploitation, rape and other violence

Page 8, (signed) In the presence of:
...Organisation des Femmes Centrafricaines (OFCA) [Organisation of Central African Women]
Madame Marie-Annick SERVICE
...Comité Consultatif des Femmes Leaders [Consultation Committee of Women Leaders]

Women, girls and gender

No specific mention.
No specific mention.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
Sexual violence
Page 3, Article 2: The cessation of hostilities entails:
...the cessation of all acts of violence against the civilian and military populations, and respect and protection of human rights. These acts of violence include summary executions, torture, harassment, the deliberate burning of villages and public and private goods, the destruction of religious buildings, pillaging, the detention and arbitrary execution of civilians and combatants, as well as the recruitment and use of child soldiers, sexual violence and the arming of civilians.

Page 4, Article 5: The parties also commit to:
... (b) prohibit and condemn all violence against the civilian and military populations, including sexual violence.
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
No specific mention.
Signing or witnessing agreement
Page 8, (signed) In the presence of:
...Organisation des Femmes Centrafricaines (OFCA) [Organisation of Central African Women]
Madame Marie-Annick SERVICE
...Comité Consultatif des Femmes Leaders [Consultation Committee of Women Leaders]
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh