Agreement between the Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF) and the Two Movement for Democratic Change (MDC) Formations, on Resolving the Challenges Facing Zimbabwe (Global Political Agreement)

Country/entity
Zimbabwe
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Agreement between the Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF) and the Two Movement for Democratic Change (MDC) Formations, on Resolving the Challenges Facing Zimbabwe (Global Political Agreement)
Date
15/09/2008
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Zimbabwean Post-electoral Political Crisis (2008)
After removing the white minority-ruled ‘Rhodesia’ from the map and establishing the state of Zimbabwe in 1980, the Zimbabwe African National Union – Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF) took power. Its long-time leader, Robert Mugabe, acted as Prime Minister from 1980 to 1987, and then took over the Presidency. He centralised power and, throughout the 1990s, established an authoritarian state. After suffering a near defeat by the Movement for Democratic Change (MDC) in the 2008 elections, the ZANU-PF launched an intimidation campaign against the unarmed opposition, which lead to numerous Human Rights violations, widespread torture and disappearances. Under strong international pressure Mugabe entered negotiations with the opposition, a Global Political Agreement was signed by him and the representatives of the two major wings of the MDC in September 2008.
Zimbabwean Post-electoral Political Crisis (2008) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - partial (Multiple issues)
Conflict nature
Government
Peace process
139: Zimbabwe post-election process
Parties
Robert G Mugabe, President, ZANU-PF, Morgan R Tsavangirai President, MDC, Arthur G O Mutambara, President, MDC
Third parties
Thabo Mbeki, SADC Faciliatator
Description
This agreement tackles multiple core issues to support the end of the conflict and the creation of a multi-party democracy and inclusive government. Among other issues, It provides in priority for the following dimensions: Economic (restoration of economic stability and growth, sanctions, land question); Political (new constitution, promotion of equality, national healing and cohesion and unity, external interference, free political activity, rule of law, state organs and institutions, legislative agenda and priorities); and Security (security of persons and prevention of violence) and Communication (media and external radio stations).

Agreement document
ZW_080915_Agreement-between-ZANU-PF-and-MDC-on-Resolving-the-Challenges-Facing-Zimbabwe.pdf

Main category
Page 1-2, Preamble:
We, the Parties to this Agreement;
...
RECOGNISING, accepting and acknowledging that the values of justice, fairness, openness, tolerance, equality, non-discrimination and respect of all persons without regard to race, class, gender, ethnicity, language, religion, political opinion, place of origin or birth are the bedrock of our democracy and good governance

Page 7-8, Article 5: Land Question
5. Land Question
...
5.8 Recognising the need for women’s access and control over land in their own right as equal citizens.
5.9 The Parties hereby agree to:
...
(b) ensure that all Zimbabweans who are eligible to be allocated land and who apply for it shall be considered for allocation of land irrespective of race, gender, religion, ethnicity or political affiliation;

Page 9, Article VI Constitution:
6. Constitution
...
and Mindful of the need to ensure that the new Constitution deepens our democratic values and principles and the protection of the equality of all citizens, particularly the enhancement of full citizenship and equality of women.

Page 11, Article VII, Promotion of Equality, National Healing, Cohesion and Unity
7. Equality, National Healing, Cohesion and Unity
7.1 The Parties hereby agree that the new Government:
a) will ensure equal treatment of all regardless of gender, race, ethnicity, place of origin and will work towards equal access to development for all;
...
d) will strive to create an environment of tolerance and respect among Zimbabweans and that all citizens are treated with dignity and decency irrespective of age, gender, race, ethnicity, place of origin or political affiliation.

Page 12, Article VIII, Respect for National Institutions and Events
8. Respect for National Institutions and Events
8.1 In the interests of forging a common vision for our country, the Parties hereby
agree:-
(a) on the necessity of all Zimbabweans regardless of race, ethnicity, gender, political affiliation and religion to respect and observe Zimbabwe’s national institutions, symbols, national programmes and events; and
(b) that all Zimbabweans regardless of race, ethnicity, gender, political affiliation and religion have the right to benefit from and participate in all national programmes and events without let or hindrance.

Page 14-15, Article XIV Traditional Leaders:
14. Traditional Leaders
14.1 Recognising and acknowledging that traditional leaders are community leaders with equal responsibilities and obligations to all members of their communities regardless of age, gender, ethnicity, race, religion and political affiliation, the Parties hereby agree to:-
(a) commit themselves to ensuring the political neutrality of traditional leaders; and
(b) call upon traditional leaders not to engage in partisan political activities at national level as well as in their communities.

Page 15, Article XV - National Youth Training Programme:
15. National Youth Training Programme
Recognising the desirability of a national youth training programme which inculcates the values of patriotism, discipline, tolerance, non-violence, openness, democracy, equality, justice and respect.
Determined to ensure that the National Youth Training Programme raises awareness of the HIV and AIDS pandemic, engenders a spirit of community service, skills development and a commitment to the development of Zimbabwe.
15.1 The Parties hereby agree that:-
(a) all youths regardless of race, ethnicity, gender, religion and political affiliation are eligible to participate in national youth training programmes;
(b) the National Youth Training Programme must be run in a non-partisan manner and shall not include partisan political material advancing the cause of any political party; and
(c) while recognising that youths undergoing training at national youth training centres have a right to hold political opinions, they shall not, during the period of their training, collectively and as part of a scheme of the training centre be used or deployed for partisan political work.

Page 16, Article XVI - Humanitarian and food assistance:
16. Humanitarian and food assistance
16.1 In times of need, every Zimbabwean regardless of race, ethnicity, gender, political affiliation and religion is entitled to request and receive humanitarian and food assistance from the State.
16.2 It is the primary responsibility of the State to ensure that every Zimbabwean who needs humanitarian and food assistance receives it.
16.3 Non-Governmental Organisations involved in giving humanitarian and food assistance shall do so without discrimination on the grounds of race, ethnicity, gender, political affiliation and religion and in doing so, shall not promote or advance the interests of any political party or cause.
16.4 In this regard the Parties hereby agree:
(a) that in the fulfillment of its obligations above, the Government and all State Institutions and quasi State Institutions shall render humanitarian and food assistance without discrimination on the grounds of race, ethnicity, gender, political affiliation or religion;
(b) that humanitarian interventions rendered by Non-Governmental Organisations, shall be provided without discrimination on the grounds of race, ethnicity, gender, political affiliation and religion.
(c) that all displaced persons shall be entitled to humanitarian and food assistance to enable them to return and settle in their original homes and that social welfare organisations shall be allowed to render such assistance as might be required.
(d) that all NGO`s rendering humanitarian and food assistance must operate within the confines of the laws of Zimbabwe.

Page 20-26, ARTICLE XX - Framework for a new Government
20. Framework for a new Government
...
Acknowledging the need for gender parity, particularly the need to appoint women to strategic Cabinet posts;

Women, girls and gender

Participation
Effective participation
Page 20, ARTICLE XX - Framework for a new Government
20. Framework for a new Government, Para 5:
... Acknowledging the need for gender parity, particularly the need to appoint women to strategic Cabinet posts;
Equality
Equality (general)
Page 2, Preamble:
We, the Parties to this Agreement;
... RECOGNISING, accepting and acknowledging that the values of justice, fairness, openness, tolerance, equality, non-discrimination and respect of all persons without regard to race, class, gender, ethnicity, language, religion, political opinion, place of origin or birth are the bedrock of our democracy and good governance

Page 9, Article VI Constitution:
6. Constitution
... and Mindful of the need to ensure that the new Constitution deepens our democratic values and principles and the protection of the equality of all citizens, particularly the enhancement of full citizenship and equality of women.

Page 11, Article VII, Promotion of Equality, National Healing, Cohesion and Unity
7. Equality, National Healing, Cohesion and Unity
7.1 The Parties hereby agree that the new Government:
a) will ensure equal treatment of all regardless of gender, race, ethnicity, place of origin and will work towards equal access to development for all;
... d) will strive to create an environment of tolerance and respect among Zimbabweans and that all citizens are treated with dignity and decency irrespective of age, gender, race, ethnicity, place of origin or political affiliation.

Page 12, Article VIII, Respect for National Institutions and Events
8. Respect for National Institutions and Events
8.1 In the interests of forging a common vision for our country, the Parties hereby agree:-
(a) on the necessity of all Zimbabweans regardless of race, ethnicity, gender, political affiliation and religion to respect and observe Zimbabwe’s national institutions, symbols, national programmes and events; and

Page 14, Article XIV Traditional Leaders:
14. Traditional Leaders
14.1 Recognising and acknowledging that traditional leaders are community leaders with equal responsibilities and obligations to all members of their communities regardless of age, gender, ethnicity, race, religion and political affiliation, the Parties hereby agree to:-
(a) commit themselves to ensuring the political neutrality of traditional leaders; and
(b) call upon traditional leaders not to engage in partisan political activities at national level as well as in their communities.
Social equality
Page 7-8, Article 5: Land Question
5. Land Question
... 5.8 Recognising the need for women’s access and control over land in their own right as equal citizens.
5.9 The Parties hereby agree to:
... (b) ensure that all Zimbabweans who are eligible to be allocated land and who apply for it shall be considered for allocation of land irrespective of race, gender, religion, ethnicity or political affiliation;

Page 11, Article VII, Promotion of Equality, National Healing, Cohesion and Unity
7. Equality, National Healing, Cohesion and Unity
7.1 The Parties hereby agree that the new Government:
a) will ensure equal treatment of all regardless of gender, race, ethnicity, place of origin and will work towards equal access to development for all;
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
Protection (general)
Page 16, Article XVI - Humanitarian and food assistance: 16. Humanitarian and food assistance 16.1 In times of need, every Zimbabwean regardless of race, ethnicity, gender, political affiliation and religion is entitled to request and receive humanitarian and food assistance from the State. 16.2 It is the primary responsibility of the State to ensure that every Zimbabwean who needs humanitarian and food assistance receives it. 16.3 Non-Governmental Organisations involved in giving humanitarian and food assistance shall do so without discrimination on the grounds of race, ethnicity, gender, political affiliation and religion and in doing so, shall not promote or advance the interests of any political party or cause. 16.4 In this regard the Parties hereby agree: (a) that in the fulfillment of its obligations above, the Government and all State Institutions and quasi State Institutions shall render humanitarian and food assistance without discrimination on the grounds of race, ethnicity, gender, political affiliation or religion; (b) that humanitarian interventions rendered by Non-Governmental Organisations, shall be provided without discrimination on the grounds of race, ethnicity, gender, political affiliation and religion. (c) that all displaced persons shall be entitled to humanitarian and food assistance to enable them to return and settle in their original homes and that social welfare organisations shall be allowed to render such assistance as might be required. (d) that all NGO`s rendering humanitarian and food assistance must operate within the confines of the laws of Zimbabwe.
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
Constitution-making/reform
Page 9, Article VI Constitution: 6. Constitution ... and Mindful of the need to ensure that the new Constitution deepens our democratic values and principles and the protection of the equality of all citizens, particularly the enhancement of full citizenship and equality of women.
Development
Education
Page 15, Article XV - National Youth Training Programme:
15. National Youth Training Programme
Recognising the desirability of a national youth training programme which inculcates the values of patriotism, discipline, tolerance, non-violence, openness, democracy, equality, justice and respect.
Determined to ensure that the National Youth Training Programme raises awareness of the HIV and AIDS pandemic, engenders a spirit of community service, skills development and a commitment to the development of Zimbabwe.
15.1 The Parties hereby agree that:-
(a) all youths regardless of race, ethnicity, gender, religion and political affiliation are eligible to participate in national youth training programmes;
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh