Juba Declaration on Dialogue and National Consensus

Country/entity
South Sudan
Sudan
Darfur
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Juba Declaration on Dialogue and National Consensus
Date
30/09/2009
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Sudan Conflicts (1955 - )
Agreements relate to several distinct dyads, and also the negotiated independence of South Sudan, and subsequent internal conflict in South Sudan. Sudan-South Sudan. The long-standing conflict between the north and the south of the country dates back to colonial times, where the British introduced a so-called ‘Southern Policy’, severely hampering population movements between these big regions. Immediately after gaining independence in 1956, southern movements started to fight for independence; this fight became professionalised in 1983 with the foundation of the soon internationally supported Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA). When the Islamic Front government introduced strict sharia laws in the south after it took over power in 1988 the war intensified. A decade later, the military situation reached a stalemate, enabling internationally facilitated peace negotiations to begin in 1997. After more fighting, a final negotiation push began in 2002, leading to the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Areement (CPA) in January 2005.

Sudan-South Sudan post referendum. South Sudan became independent in July 2011; since then, relations between the two countries are complicated and violent conflict led by the SPLM (North) in the Sudanese Nuba mountains region has since intensified.

Darfur. Other long-standing violent conflicts are in the east and the west of the country. In the east, the Beja Congress, established in 1957, is the spearhead of a currently ‘peaceful’ opposition movement. In the west, the violent conflict in Darfur intensified in the early 2000s and rapidly gained international attention, even resulting in genocide charges against leading figures of the Sudanese government. The situation on the ground is complex, with over a dozen organisations (most notably the Sudanese Liberation Movement and the Justice and Equality Movement) fighting the Sudanese government and allied groups like the Janjaweed – although all parties have switched sides on numerous occasions. Several mediation attempts have not been successful, due to the shaky commitment of the Sudanese central government and the distrust among the armed opposition.

South Sudan- internal. Post independence, conflict broke out between groups in South Sudan and agreements were reached addressing this conflict.

Sudan Conflicts (1955 - ) )
Stage
Implementation/renegotiation (Addresses new or outstanding issues)
Conflict nature
Government/territory
Peace process
118: Sudanese peace process
Parties
36 Participants [Most signatures in Arabic and illegible]
Ali Hussein Dousha
Third parties
Description
Re-affirming, re-negotiation agreement touching on the important of National Dialogue and Consensus, National Reconciliation, renewal of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA), importance of democracy, and the economic and social situation.

Agreement document
SD_090930_Juba Declaration on Dialogue and National Consensus.pdf

Main category
Page 3, PREAMBLE
The aim is to ensure full implementation of all peace agreements and all constitut
2.2 The APPC urges the Presidency to form “Truth and Reconciliation Committee (TRC)” to ional arrangements prescribed in the Interim National Constitution (INC), 2005; including respect for human rights and the rule of law, political empowerment of women, conduct of free and fair elections, holding of referendum for the people of Southern Sudan and popular consultation for Southern Kordofan and Blue Nile States. The commitment to resolve the conflict in Darfur is duly emphasized.

Page 4, 1. DIALOGUE AND NATIONAL CONSENSUS
1.1. The APPC maintains that the process of forging national consensus requires open dialogue without prior conditions or exclusion of any party. The APPC in Juba is the first such process since the signing of all peace agreements, particularly the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA). There is need to continue this free democratic dialogue among all national forces, civil society and women organizations.

Women, girls and gender

Participation
Effective participation
Page 3, PREAMBLE
The aim is to ensure full implementation of all peace agreements and all constitutional arrangements prescribed in the Interim National Constitution (INC), 2005; including respect for human rights and the rule of law, political empowerment of women, conduct of free and fair elections, holding of referendum for the people of Southern Sudan and popular consultation for Southern Kordofan and Blue Nile States. The commitment to resolve the conflict in Darfur is duly emphasized.
Other
Page 4, 1. DIALOGUE AND NATIONAL CONSENSUS
1.1. The APPC maintains that the process of forging national consensus requires open dialogue without prior conditions or exclusion of any party. The APPC in Juba is the first such process since the signing of all peace agreements, particularly the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA). There is need to continue this free democratic dialogue among all national forces, civil society and women organizations.
Equality
No specific mention.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
Infrastructure (general)
Page 4, 1. DIALOGUE AND NATIONAL CONSENSUS
1.1. The APPC maintains that the process of forging national consensus requires open dialogue without prior conditions or exclusion of any party. The APPC in Juba is the first such process since the signing of all peace agreements, particularly the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA). There is need to continue this free democratic dialogue among all national forces, civil society and women organizations.
Violence against women
No specific mention.
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
Constitution-making/reform
Page 3, PREAMBLE
The aim is to ensure full implementation of all peace agreements and all constitutional arrangements prescribed in the Interim National Constitution (INC), 2005; including respect for human rights and the rule of law, political empowerment of women, conduct of free and fair elections, holding of referendum for the people of Southern Sudan and popular consultation for Southern Kordofan and Blue Nile States. The commitment to resolve the conflict in Darfur is duly emphasized.
Development
No specific mention.
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh