Doha Document for Peace in Darfur (DDPD)

Country/entity
Sudan
Darfur
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Doha Document for Peace in Darfur (DDPD)
Date
31/05/2011
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Sudan Conflicts (1955 - )
Agreements relate to several distinct dyads, and also the negotiated independence of South Sudan, and subsequent internal conflict in South Sudan. Sudan-South Sudan. The long-standing conflict between the north and the south of the country dates back to colonial times, where the British introduced a so-called ‘Southern Policy’, severely hampering population movements between these big regions. Immediately after gaining independence in 1956, southern movements started to fight for independence; this fight became professionalised in 1983 with the foundation of the soon internationally supported Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA). When the Islamic Front government introduced strict sharia laws in the south after it took over power in 1988 the war intensified. A decade later, the military situation reached a stalemate, enabling internationally facilitated peace negotiations to begin in 1997. After more fighting, a final negotiation push began in 2002, leading to the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Areement (CPA) in January 2005.

Sudan-South Sudan post referendum. South Sudan became independent in July 2011; since then, relations between the two countries are complicated and violent conflict led by the SPLM (North) in the Sudanese Nuba mountains region has since intensified.

Darfur. Other long-standing violent conflicts are in the east and the west of the country. In the east, the Beja Congress, established in 1957, is the spearhead of a currently ‘peaceful’ opposition movement. In the west, the violent conflict in Darfur intensified in the early 2000s and rapidly gained international attention, even resulting in genocide charges against leading figures of the Sudanese government. The situation on the ground is complex, with over a dozen organisations (most notably the Sudanese Liberation Movement and the Justice and Equality Movement) fighting the Sudanese government and allied groups like the Janjaweed – although all parties have switched sides on numerous occasions. Several mediation attempts have not been successful, due to the shaky commitment of the Sudanese central government and the distrust among the armed opposition.

South Sudan- internal. Post independence, conflict broke out between groups in South Sudan and agreements were reached addressing this conflict.

Sudan Conflicts (1955 - ) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - comprehensive (Agreement)
Conflict nature
Government/territory
Peace process
24: Darfur-Sudan peace process
Parties
Not signed, parties known to be Darfur Stakeholders in attendance at the All Darfur Stakeholders Conference in May 2011
Third parties
The follow-up implementation agreement is signed by Joint Special Representative for AU/UN Mediation, however it is unclear whether this agreement was signed
Description
An agreement that provides for measures and modalities to address the root causes of the Darfur conflict. Chapter I provides for Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, Chapter II establishes Power-Sharing and the Administrative Status of Darfur, Chapter III provides measures for Wealth Sharing, Chapter IV establishes means and modalities for the Compensation and Return of IDPs and Refugees, Chapter V establishes Justice and Reconciliation measures, Chapter VI enacts a Permanent Ceasefire and Final Security Arrangements, Chapter VII promotes Internal Dialogue and Consultation, as well as Implementation Modalities, and attached at the end is an Annex with a Draft Implementation Timetable for various provisions. The Agreement is followed up by the Agreement between the Government of Sudan and the LJM for the Adoption of the Doha Document for Peace in Darfur, in which the parties enabled the Doha Document for Peace in Darfur (DDPD) to become the framework for the comprehensive agreement.


Agreement document
SD_110531_Doha Document for Peace in Darfur (DDPD).pdf

Main category
[See 'Men and boys' for additional provisions on Women and Girls that could are not coded here]

Page 8, PREAMBLE
Condemning all acts of violence against civilians and the violations of human rights, in particular violence against women and children; and stressing the imperative to refrain from such acts of violence and violations of human rights and international humanitarian law;

Page 10, CHAPTER I - HUMAN RIGHTS AND FUNDAMENTAL FREEDOMS, ARTICLE 1: PROMOTION AND PROTECTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS AND FUNDAMENTAL FREEDOMS
4. The Parties shall ensure that all persons enjoy and exercise all of the rights and freedoms provided for in this Agreement, in the National Constitution of Sudan and international and regional human rights instruments to which Sudan is a party without discrimination on any grounds including sex, race, colour, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin or social status. Women, children and men shall be guaranteed the equal enjoyment of all rights enshrined in the international human rights and humanitarian law instruments to which Sudan is a party.

Page 11, CHAPTER I - HUMAN RIGHTS AND FUNDAMENTAL FREEDOMS, ARTICLE 1: PROMOTION AND PROTECTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS AND FUNDAMENTAL FREEDOMS
9. The GoS, in accordance with the provisions of Chapter III [Page 25, Chapter III - Wealth Sharing, Article 16, 102. provides list of economic and social rights], shall promote the general welfare and economic growth in Darfur through provision of adequate basic needs, services and infrastructure, promotion of youth employment, empowerment of women, good governance, public services and allocation of appropriate resources, as well as equal access to natural resources including land for all communities in Darfur, with due respect to prevailing norms and traditions.

Page 11, CHAPTER I - HUMAN RIGHTS AND FUNDAMENTAL FREEDOMS, ARTICLE 1: PROMOTION AND PROTECTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS AND FUNDAMENTAL FREEDOMS
11. The needs of women, children and vulnerable groups shall be given due attention in the Darfur early recovery, reconstruction, rehabilitation and education policies and programmes.

Page 13, CHAPTER II — POWER SHARING AND ADMINISTRATIVE STATUS OF DARFUR, ARTICLE 2: GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF POWER SHARING
25. Citizenship shall be the basis for civic rights and obligations without any discrimination as to the ethnicity, tribe, religion, gender or origin of persons. This does not preclude any law, programme or activity that has as its objective the improvement of conditions of individuals or groups that have been disadvantaged because of their race, ethnicity, colour, or regional or national origin.

Page 14, CHAPTER II, ARTICLE 2
31. All levels of Government shall ensure the provision of continuing opportunities of general education, training and employment in public service to promote full and equal participation of the people of Darfur in advancing the nation's welfare. In this context, special attention shall be given to women and children in the field of education, capacity building and training. Training centres shall be established in urban and rural areas in collaboration with specialised international and regional organisations.

Page 14, CHAPTER II, ARTICLE 2
34. To address the under-representation of women in government institutions and decision- making structures, special measures shall be taken and implemented, according to this Agreement, in order to ensure women's equal and effective participation in decision-making at all levels of government in Darfur.

Page 17, CHAPTER II, ARTICLE 7: THE NATIONAL CIVIL SERVICE AND OTHER PUBLIC BODIES
52. The Panel shall identify any imbalances that have undermined the representation of the people of Darfur in the NCS, and shall make practical and action-oriented recommendations to address such imbalances and discrepancies in the NCS, including recommending appropriate measures to ensure fair representation for the people of Darfur in the service. The Panel is to be guided in its work by the following: [...]
ii. Affirmative action in recruitment, training and promotion, including measures to promote gender balance.

Page 17, CHAPTER II, ARTICLE 7
54. Pending the outcome of the Panel's report, the GoS shall ensure that the following tasks are carried out:
...
ii. Reserve certain posts in the NCS exclusively for qualified women from Darfur;

Page 20, CHAPTER II, ARTICLE 10: THE ADMINISTRATIVE STATUS OF DARFUR - CONCURRENT COMPETENCIES
64. The DRA shall have concurrent competencies in policy making and coordination on the
following:
...
viii. Women advancement, motherhood and child care;
...
xi. Gender policy;

Page 20-21, CHAPTER II, ARTICLE 10
67. The DRA Executive Organ shall consist of the following:
...
x. Minister of Social Affairs, Maternity and Childhood Care - Member

Page 24, CHAPTER II, ARTICLE 13: LOCAL GOVERNMENT
87. The Parties agree that the Movements shall be adequately represented at the local government level before the next local elections, with proportionate representation of women.

Page 24, CHAPTER II, ARTICLE 13
88. Appropriate measures shall be taken to assist various groups such as youth and women through capacity building and affirmative action.

Page 25, CHAPTER III - WEALTH SHARING, GENERAL PROVISIONS, ARTICLE 16: PRINCIPLES FOR WEALTH SHARING
101. Human resources development shall constitute a means and objective for economic and social development policies. These policies shall be drawn up and implemented to develop the educational system and to secure access by the population of Darfur, without discrimination on the basis of race or gender, to equal opportunities to education and training within Darfur and the country. Special efforts shall be exerted to eliminate illiteracy among women.

Page 27, CHAPTER III, ARTICLE 17: POLICIES OF WEALTH SHARING
111. The ultimate goal of the national economic policy shall be to reach full employment through, inter alia, sound policies based on promotion of price stability, raising employment levels, promotion of sustainable economic development and eradication of poverty. Accordingly, national, social and economic policies, programmes and plans shall aim at ensuring that:
i. Decent and dignified living conditions for all citizens are promoted and improved
without discrimination on grounds of race, colour, ethnicity, tribal, regional or local
affiliation, gender, religion, language or political or other opinions;

Page 28, CHAPTER III, ARTICLE 17
117. Without prejudice to Article 14, policies shall be drawn up and implemented to develop the educational system and secure access by the population of Darfur, without discrimination on the basis of race or gender, to equal opportunities to education and training within the States of Darfur and the country. Special efforts shall be exerted to eliminate illiteracy among women.

Page 28, CHAPTER III, ARTICLE 17
122. Special focus shall be put on the concerns of Darfur women, who are involved in all areas of activity and constitute the bulk of the labour force, especially in the agricultural and animal resource sectors, in addition to being heads of households particularly among refugees, internally displaced persons and migrants and to the fact that women’s situation in all these areas has been worsened by the conflict, which has had a particularly deleterious impact on them and children, mainly on their means of livelihood. Concrete measures shall be taken to address their concerns, as well as to ensure their equal and effective participation in commissions, committees and bodies established pursuant to this Agreement.

Page 30, CHAPTER III, ARTICLE 19: MICRO-FINANCE SYSTEM
133. The MFS shall give particular importance to women’s income generating activities especially those of widows.

Page 31, CHAPTER III, ARTICLE 21
141. The functions of the Fund include, but are not limited to, the following tasks:
...
iii. Establishing financing mechanisms to meet the special needs of women, children and orphans. Such mechanisms shall include, but not be limited to, the provision of loans, investment opportunities, strengthening of productive capacities, production inputs and capacity building for women.

Page 34, CHAPTER III, ARTICLE 27: FISCAL ENTITLEMENTS OF DARFUR
162. A system of grants for specific purposes shall be established, with a view to realising the MDGs, alleviating poverty and realising gender equality.

Page 45, CHAPTER IV, ARTICLE 42: GENERAL PRINCIPLES FOR COMPENSATION AND THE RETURN OF
INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS AND REFUGEES
219. The protection and assistance of IDPs, refugees and all victims of conflict with special needs, including separated and unaccompanied children, female heads of household, expectant mothers, mothers with young children, the elderly, and persons with disabilities.

Page 45, CHAPTER IV, ARTICLE 42
220. The adoption by the Parties of measures to ensure that IDPs, refugees and all other victims of conflict live in conditions of safety and dignity, and in full respect for their equal rights, in all phases of displacement, including prevention of all forms of forced displacement, protection and assistance during displacement and during voluntary return, resettlement and reintegration. Ensuring that humanitarian assistance is delivered to the affected people, especially women and children, undertaking to address the situation of the disabled among them and provide them with health and social services.

Page 46, CHAPTER IV, ARTICLE 42
221. The commitment of the Parties to establish mechanisms to promote, enable and facilitate the active participation of IDPs, returning refugees, victims of conflict and civil society in the planning and implementation of strategies, policies and programmes related to addressing the humanitarian and human rights impact of the conflict and to the return process. Special measures shall be taken to ensure the participation of women and youth.

Page 46, CHAPTER IV, ARTICLE 44: SAFETY AND SECURITY
226. The Parties shall, with the support of UNAMID, provide security and protection from all forms of physical attack, all forms of sexual violence, exploitation, abduction, child recruitment, child labour, arbitrary detention, informal “taxation”, charging ransoms, and illegal confiscation of property and the GoS shall address the impact of such violations by taking the necessary steps to ensure effective and timely justice.

Page 47, CHAPTER IV, ARTICLE 44
228. Subject to the provisions of Chapter VI of this Agreement, the Parties shall undertake all measures necessary with the assistance of UNAMID to ensure security in IDP camps. Such measures shall ensure the effective participation of women in the decision-making process within the camps.

Page 48, CHAPTER IV, ARTICLE 46
237. Women, children, as well as men have equal rights to obtain all necessary identity documents and have the right to have such documents issued in their own names. Special efforts will be taken to expedite the provision of such documents to orphans as well as to separated and unaccompanied children.

Page 49, CHAPTER IV, ARTICLE 49: VOLUNTARY RETURN
246. The Parties shall make special efforts to ensure the participation of IDPs and refugees, including women and youth, in the planning and management of their return or resettlement and reintegration, in coordination with the VRRC and any other relevant entities.

Page 52, CHAPTER IV, ARTICLE 52
263. The PCRC shall:
...
v. Establish procedures for the submission and determination of claims that are simple, accessible, transparent, just, timely, enforceable and free of charge. These procedures shall include specific measures to ensure that women and orphans are able to participate on a fully equal basis in the restitution process;

Page 55, CHAPTER V – JUSTICE AND RECONCILIATION, ARTICLE 55: GENERAL PRINCIPLES FOR JUSTICE AND RECONCILIATION
285. The recognition of the special situation and concerns of women, children and youth and the important role of women and youth in the prevention and resolution of conflicts, in transitional justice processes and in peacebuilding, and the imperative of their equal participation and full involvement in all efforts for the maintenance of peace and security, including justice and reconciliation.

Page 60, CHAPTER V, ARTICLE 58: TRUTH AND RECONCILIATION
317. The TRC shall be composed of eminent personalities reflecting the ethnic and cultural diversity of Sudan, with due respect for gender balance. The membership of the TRC shall include members nominated by the Parties.

Page 63, CHAPTER VI: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS, ARTICLE 62: GENERAL PRINCIPLES FOR PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS
333. Civilians in Darfur have the right to protection, including provision of specific measures for vulnerable groups such as women and children taking into account their special status in international law, and in recognition that they have suffered disproportionately during the conflict;

Page 63, CHAPTER VI, ARTICLE 62
335. The imperative to refrain from all acts of violence against civilians, in particular vulnerable groups such as women and children, and from violations of human rights and international humanitarian law;

Page 64, CHAPTER VI, ARTICLE 63: PROHIBITED ACTIVITIES AND POSITIVE UNDERTAKINGS
340. In accordance with this Agreement, the Parties agree to immediately cease and refrain from any:
...
ix. Acts and forms of gender-based violence and sexual exploitation;

Page 65, CHAPTER VI, ARTICLE 63
341. The Parties further undertake to ensure:
iv. That the provisions of this Agreement are communicated, through the Parties’ chain of command, to all elements of their armed forces, and armed groups under their control or influence including women, and that all such forces and groups shall comply with those provisions.

Page 66, CHAPTER VI, ARTICLE 64
345. Cognisant of the important role of women in peace making, adequate and effective
representation of women shall be guaranteed by the Parties at all levels of the ceasefire mechanism.

Page 68, CHAPTER VI, ARTICLE 64 - CODE OF CONDUCT
355. CFC members and observers will be expected at all times to adhere to the code of conduct which includes the following: [...] viii. Place the interests of the people of Darfur and other resident civilians, including women and children, ahead of personal considerations;

Page 68, CHAPTER VI, ARTICLE 64 - SECTOR SUB-CEASEFIRE COMMISSION
358. Each sector shall establish and maintain Sector Sub-Ceasefire Commission inclusive of women to ensure an effective investigation and reporting cycle. The sectors shall establish a Secretariat to be headed by the Chief sub CFC modelled on the CFC Secretariat. Team site groups comprising various elements at sub-unit/unit levels, inclusive of women, shall be established as the primary sources of reporting incidents and investigating violations to the Permanent Ceasefire.

Page 70, CHAPTER VI, ARTICLE 64 - CEASEFIRE TEAM SITE GROUPS
363. The CTSGs provide SSCFC with situational awareness and serve as the first level of
conflict resolution within the Mission. In recognition of the role that women must play in the peace and security process, women shall be included in all CTSGs.

Page 70, CHAPTER VI, ARTICLE 64 - CEASEFIRE TEAM SITE GROUP
364. The CTSGs are responsible for overseeing the compliance of the Parties to the ceasefire as enshrined in the Permanent Ceasefire within their areas of responsibility. This will be achieved through monitoring, patrolling, visiting, inspecting, liaising, investigating, verifying and reporting as directed and supervised by the SSCFC.

Page 71, CHAPTER VI, ARTICLE 65: JOINT COMMISSIOn - FUNCTIONS/TERMS OF REFERENCE
369. The Commission shall perform the following functions:
...
v. In accordance with the UNSCR 1325 (2000), the Commission shall ensure that all forms of violence that specifically affect women and children are heard and redressed in a gender sensitive and competent manner;

Page 77, CHAPTER VI, ARTICLE 68: DEMILITARISED ZONES AND BUFFER ZONES
405. The Parties reaffirm their commitment to:
...
v. Provide special protection for women, disabled persons, children including those associated with the armed forces and armed groups, and other persons with special needs.

Page 80, CHAPTER VI, ARTICLE 72: DISARMAMENT, DEMOBILIZATION AND REINTEGRATION, AND
INTEGRATION OF FORMER COMBATANTS INTO THE SUDANESE ARMED FORCES AND POLICE FORCES
418. The Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR) and Integration-process shall take place within the designated assembly areas after phase III, with only those former combatants that have been verified as part of the Movements' forces. UNAMID, in consultation with the Movements, shall develop a plan for the assembly areas to include: ...
ii. Desired characteristics of the assembly areas, taking into account the specific needs of female former combatants;

Page 81, CHAPTER VI, ARTICLE 72
427. The reintegration programme shall encourage the participation of the communities and civil society organizations including women groups, with the view to strengthening their capacity to play their role in improving and sustaining the social and economic reintegration of former combatants.

Page 81, CHAPTER VI, ARTICLE 72
429. Specific resources shall be mobilized and set aside to address the special reintegration needs of women.

Page 82, CHAPTER VI, ARTICLE 72
433. The Parties shall assemble their former combatants. However, care shall be taken for disarmament and demobilization to be done in accordance with the following:
...
v. The Parties shall begin, as a matter of priority, the process of demobilization and reintegration of special needs groups, which includes disabled ex-combatants and women.

Page 84, CHAPTER VI, ARTICLE 74
450. The membership of the ITC which shall include women shall consist of UNAMID, representatives of the Parties and technical experts from a country or countries acceptable to the Parties.

Page 84, CHAPTER VI, ARTICLE 74
453. Women shall be fairly represented in the DSAIC and the subsidiary bodies it establishes. These bodies shall develop mechanisms to ensure that their work incorporates appropriate input from women on issues of special concern to women and children.

Page 85, CHAPTER VI, ARTICLE 74
455. The Parties agree to determine the number of male and female former combatants to be integrated in the SAF, the SPF and selected civil services on the basis of the verified number of the Movements' forces.

Page 88, CHAPTER VII, ARTICLE 76
473. Primarily, the DIDC will, through popular consultation and dialogue seek to consolidate peace in Darfur, promote confidence-building and encourage reconciliation as well as unity among the people of Darfur and Sudan in general. Specifically, the DIDC will aim at:
...
vi. Raising awareness and mobilizing support for all measures taken regarding civilian arms control, the promotion of women, youth development, the safe return of IDPs and refugees and their reintegration into the society, property restitution and compensation, as provided for in this Agreement;

[Page 94, Draft Implementation Timetable, B. Wealth Sharing, Serial No. 14 and 16 provide timetables for Paragraphs 117 and 141(iii)]

Women, girls and gender

Participation
Effective participation
Page 14, CHAPTER II, ARTICLE 2
34. To address the under-representation of women in government institutions and decision- making structures, special measures shall be taken and implemented, according to this Agreement, in order to ensure women's equal and effective participation in decision-making at all levels of government in Darfur.

Page 24, CHAPTER II, ARTICLE 13: LOCAL GOVERNMENT
87. The Parties agree that the Movements shall be adequately represented at the local government level before the next local elections, with proportionate representation of women.

Page 28-29, CHAPTER III, ARTICLE 17
122. Special focus shall be put on the concerns of Darfur women, who are involved in all areas of activity and constitute the bulk of the labour force, especially in the agricultural and animal resource sectors, in addition to being heads of households particularly among refugees, internally displaced persons and migrants and to the fact that women’s situation in all these areas has been worsened by the conflict, which has had a particularly deleterious impact on them and children, mainly on their means of livelihood. Concrete measures shall be taken to address their concerns, as well as to ensure their equal and effective participation in commissions, committees and bodies established pursuant to this Agreement.

Page 47, CHAPTER IV, ARTICLE 44
228. Subject to the provisions of Chapter VI of this Agreement, the Parties shall undertake all measures necessary with the assistance of UNAMID to ensure security in IDP camps. Such measures shall ensure the effective participation of women in the decision-making process within the camps.

Page 84, CHAPTER VI, ARTICLE 74
453. Women shall be fairly represented in the DSAIC and the subsidiary bodies it establishes. These bodies shall develop mechanisms to ensure that their work incorporates appropriate input from women on issues of special concern to women and children.

Citizenship
Page 13, CHAPTER II — POWER SHARING AND ADMINISTRATIVE STATUS OF DARFUR, ARTICLE 2: GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF POWER SHARING
25. Citizenship shall be the basis for civic rights and obligations without any discrimination as to the ethnicity, tribe, religion, gender or origin of persons. This does not preclude any law, programme or activity that has as its objective the improvement of conditions of individuals or groups that have been disadvantaged because of their race, ethnicity, colour, or regional or national origin.

Page 48, CHAPTER IV, ARTICLE 46
237. Women, children, as well as men have equal rights to obtain all necessary identity documents and have the right to have such documents issued in their own names. Special efforts will be taken to expedite the provision of such documents to orphans as well as to separated and unaccompanied children.
Other
Page 52, CHAPTER IV, ARTICLE 52
263. The PCRC shall: [...]
v. Establish procedures for the submission and determination of claims that are simple, accessible, transparent, just, timely, enforceable and free of charge. These procedures shall include specific measures to ensure that women and orphans are able to participate on a fully equal basis in the restitution process;
Equality
Equality (general)
Page 10, CHAPTER I - HUMAN RIGHTS AND FUNDAMENTAL FREEDOMS, ARTICLE 1: PROMOTION AND PROTECTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS AND FUNDAMENTAL FREEDOMS
4. The Parties shall ensure that all persons enjoy and exercise all of the rights and freedoms provided for in this Agreement, in the National Constitution of Sudan and international and regional human rights instruments to which Sudan is a party without discrimination on any grounds including sex, race, colour, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin or social status. Women, children and men shall be guaranteed the equal enjoyment of all rights enshrined in the international human rights and humanitarian law instruments to which Sudan is a party.
Social equality
Page 11, CHAPTER I - HUMAN RIGHTS AND FUNDAMENTAL FREEDOMS, ARTICLE 1: PROMOTION AND PROTECTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS AND FUNDAMENTAL FREEDOMS
9. The GoS, in accordance with the provisions of Chapter III [Page 25, Chapter III - Wealth Sharing, Article 16, 102. provides list of economic and social rights], shall promote the general welfare and economic growth in Darfur through provision of adequate basic needs, services and infrastructure, promotion of youth employment, empowerment of women, good governance, public services and allocation of appropriate resources, as well as equal access to natural resources including land for all communities in Darfur, with due respect to prevailing norms and traditions.

Page 27, CHAPTER III, ARTICLE 17: POLICIES OF WEALTH SHARING
111. The ultimate goal of the national economic policy shall be to reach full employment through, inter alia, sound policies based on promotion of price stability, raising employment levels, promotion of sustainable economic development and eradication of poverty. Accordingly, national, social and economic policies, programmes and plans shall aim at ensuring that:
i. Decent and dignified living conditions for all citizens are promoted and improved without discrimination on grounds of race, colour, ethnicity, tribal, regional or local affiliation, gender, religion, language or political or other opinions;

Page 28-29, CHAPTER III, ARTICLE 17
122. Special focus shall be put on the concerns of Darfur women, who are involved in all areas of activity and constitute the bulk of the labour force, especially in the agricultural and animal resource sectors, in addition to being heads of households particularly among refugees, internally displaced persons and migrants and to the fact that women’s situation in all these areas has been worsened by the conflict, which has had a particularly deleterious impact on them and children, mainly on their means of livelihood. Concrete measures shall be taken to address their concerns, as well as to ensure their equal and effective participation in commissions, committees and bodies established pursuant to this Agreement.

Page 34, CHAPTER III, ARTICLE 27: FISCAL ENTITLEMENTS OF DARFUR
162. A system of grants for specific purposes shall be established, with a view to realising the MDGs, alleviating poverty and realising gender equality.

Page 45, CHAPTER IV, ARTICLE 42 220. The adoption by the Parties of measures to ensure that IDPs, refugees and all other victims of conflict live in conditions of safety and dignity, and in full respect for their equal rights, in all phases of displacement, including prevention of all forms of forced displacement, protection and assistance during displacement and during voluntary return, resettlement and reintegration. Ensuring that humanitarian assistance is delivered to the affected people, especially women and children, undertaking to address the situation of the disabled among them and provide them with health and social services.

Page 50, CHAPTER IV, ARTICLE 50
249. The Parties agree that the necessary conditions for return of IDPs and refugees are the following:
...
xi. Equal access to means of livelihood for men and women, including employment;
Particular groups of women
Refugee/displaced women
Page 28, CHAPTER III, ARTICLE 17
122. Special focus shall be put on the concerns of Darfur women, who are involved in all areas of activity and constitute the bulk of the labour force, especially in the agricultural and animal resource sectors, in addition to being heads of households particularly among refugees, internally displaced persons and migrants and to the fact that women’s situation in all these areas has been worsened by the conflict, which has had a particularly deleterious impact on them and children, mainly on their means of livelihood. Concrete measures shall be taken to address their concerns, as well as to ensure their equal and effective participation in commissions, committees and bodies established pursuant to this Agreement.

Page 45, CHAPTER IV, ARTICLE 42: GENERAL PRINCIPLES FOR COMPENSATION AND THE RETURN OF
INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS AND REFUGEES
219. The protection and assistance of IDPs, refugees and all victims of conflict with special needs, including separated and unaccompanied children, female heads of household, expectant mothers, mothers with young children, the elderly, and persons with disabilities.

Page 45, CHAPTER IV, ARTICLE 42
220. The adoption by the Parties of measures to ensure that IDPs, refugees and all other victims of conflict live in conditions of safety and dignity, and in full respect for their equal rights, in all phases of displacement, including prevention of all forms of forced displacement, protection and assistance during displacement and during voluntary return, resettlement and reintegration. Ensuring that humanitarian assistance is delivered to the affected people, especially women and children, undertaking to address the situation of the disabled among them and provide them with health and social services.

Page 46, CHAPTER IV, ARTICLE 42
221. The commitment of the Parties to establish mechanisms to promote, enable and facilitate the active participation of IDPs, returning refugees, victims of conflict and civil society in the planning and implementation of strategies, policies and programmes related to addressing the humanitarian and human rights impact of the conflict and to the return process. Special measures shall be taken to ensure the participation of women and youth.

Page 47, CHAPTER IV, ARTICLE 44
228. Subject to the provisions of Chapter VI of this Agreement, the Parties shall undertake all measures necessary with the assistance of UNAMID to ensure security in IDP camps. Such measures shall ensure the effective participation of women in the decision-making process within the camps.

Page 49, CHAPTER IV, ARTICLE 49: VOLUNTARY RETURN
246. The Parties shall make special efforts to ensure the participation of IDPs and refugees, including women and youth, in the planning and management of their return or resettlement and reintegration, in coordination with the VRRC and any other relevant entities.

Page 50, CHAPTER IV, ARTICLE 50
249. The Parties agree that the necessary conditions for return of IDPs and refugees are the following:
...
x. Provision of education and equal training for boys and girls including livelihoods training;
xi. Equal access to means of livelihood for men and women, including employment;

Page 52, CHAPTER IV, ARTICLE 52
263. The PCRC shall: [...]
v. Establish procedures for the submission and determination of claims that are simple, accessible, transparent, just, timely, enforceable and free of charge. These procedures shall include specific measures to ensure that women and orphans are able to participate on a fully equal basis in the restitution process;

Page 88, CHAPTER VII, ARTICLE 76
473. Primarily, the DIDC will, through popular consultation and dialogue seek to consolidate peace in Darfur, promote confidence-building and encourage reconciliation as well as unity among the people of Darfur and Sudan in general. Specifically, the DIDC will aim at:
...
vi. Raising awareness and mobilizing support for all measures taken regarding civilian arms control, the promotion of women, youth development, the safe return of IDPs and refugees and their reintegration into the society, property restitution and compensation, as provided for in this Agreement;

Page 79, CHAPTER VI, ARTICLE 70: SECURITY OF IDP CAMPS AND HUMANITARIAN OPERATIONS IN DARFUR
413. The GoS shall, in consultation with the DRA, recruit male and female volunteers from the local communities, IDPs and returning refugees into the Community Police, to participate in maintaining the security and safety of the IDPs' camps and voluntary return villages. The UNAMID shall contribute in training the community police.


Pregnancy/maternity
Page 45, CHAPTER IV, ARTICLE 42: GENERAL PRINCIPLES FOR COMPENSATION AND THE RETURN OF INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS AND REFUGEES 219. The protection and assistance of IDPs, refugees and all victims of conflict with special needs, including separated and unaccompanied children, female heads of household, expectant mothers, mothers with young children, the elderly, and persons with disabilities.
International law
General IHRL, IHL and IL
Page 10, CHAPTER I - HUMAN RIGHTS AND FUNDAMENTAL FREEDOMS, ARTICLE 1: PROMOTION AND PROTECTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS AND FUNDAMENTAL FREEDOMS
4. The Parties shall ensure that all persons enjoy and exercise all of the rights and freedoms provided for in this Agreement, in the National Constitution of Sudan and international and regional human rights instruments to which Sudan is a party without discrimination on any grounds including sex, race, colour, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin or social status. Women, children and men shall be guaranteed the equal enjoyment of all rights enshrined in the international human rights and humanitarian law instruments to which Sudan is a party.

Page 63, CHAPTER VI: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS, ARTICLE 62: GENERAL PRINCIPLES FOR PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS
333. Civilians in Darfur have the right to protection, including provision of specific measures for vulnerable groups such as women and children taking into account their special status in international law, and in recognition that they have suffered disproportionately during the conflict;

Page 63, CHAPTER VI, ARTICLE 62
335. The imperative to refrain from all acts of violence against civilians, in particular vulnerable groups such as women and children, and from violations of human rights and international humanitarian law;
International human rights standards
Page 64, CHAPTER VI, ARTICLE 63: PROHIBITED ACTIVITIES AND POSITIVE UNDERTAKINGS
340. In accordance with this Agreement, the Parties agree to immediately cease and refrain from any:
...
x. Recruitment and use of boys and girls under age 18 by armed forces and armed groups in hostilities, in accordance with Sudan’s obligations under the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict, and obligations under Protocol II (1977) of Geneva Conventions of 1949;
References to UNSC 1325 itself
Page 71, CHAPTER VI, ARTICLE 65: JOINT COMMISSION - FUNCTIONS/TERMS OF REFERENCE
369. The Commission shall perform the following functions:
...
v. In accordance with the UNSCR 1325 (2000), the Commission shall ensure that all forms of violence that specifically affect women and children are heard and redressed in a gender sensitive and competent manner;
New institutions
Institutions for women
Page 20-21, CHAPTER II, ARTICLE 10
67. The DRA Executive Organ shall consist of the following:
x. Minister of Social Affairs, Maternity and Childhood Care - Member
Infrastructure (general)
Page 20, CHAPTER II, ARTICLE 10: THE ADMINISTRATIVE STATUS OF DARFUR - CONCURRENT COMPETENCIES
64. The DRA shall have concurrent competencies in policy making and coordination on the
following:
...
viii. Women advancement, motherhood and child care;
...
xi. Gender policy;

Page 24, CHAPTER II, ARTICLE 13
88. Appropriate measures shall be taken to assist various groups such as youth and women through capacity building and affirmative action.

Page 88, CHAPTER VII, ARTICLE 76
473. Primarily, the DIDC will, through popular consultation and dialogue seek to consolidate peace in Darfur, promote confidence-building and encourage reconciliation as well as unity among the people of Darfur and Sudan in general. Specifically, the DIDC will aim at:
...
vi. Raising awareness and mobilizing support for all measures taken regarding civilian arms control, the promotion of women, youth development, the safe return of IDPs and refugees and their reintegration into the society, property restitution and compensation, as provided for in this Agreement;

Page 83 CHAPTER VI, ARTICLE 73
438. It is imperative that social and economic reintegration of ex-combatants assures the participation of local communities and civil society organizations including women groups, towards enabling them to play their role in the sustainability of the social and economic reintegration of boys and girls associated with armed forces and armed groups and other vulnerable conflict affected children.

Page 81, CHAPTER VI, ARTICLE 72
427. The reintegration programme shall encourage the participation of the communities and civil society organizations including women groups, with the view to strengthening their capacity to play their role in improving and sustaining the social and economic reintegration of former combatants.
Reconciliation and peace
Page 55, CHAPTER V – JUSTICE AND RECONCILIATION, ARTICLE 55: GENERAL PRINCIPLES FOR JUSTICE AND RECONCILIATION
285. The recognition of the special situation and concerns of women, children and youth and the important role of women and youth in the prevention and resolution of conflicts, in transitional justice processes and in peacebuilding, and the imperative of their equal participation and full involvement in all efforts for the maintenance of peace and security, including justice and reconciliation.

Page 60, CHAPTER V, ARTICLE 58: TRUTH AND RECONCILIATION
317. The TRC shall be composed of eminent personalities reflecting the ethnic and cultural diversity of Sudan, with due respect for gender balance. The membership of the TRC shall include members nominated by the Parties.

Page 66, CHAPTER VI, ARTICLE 64
345. Cognisant of the important role of women in peace making, adequate and effective representation of women shall be guaranteed by the Parties at all levels of the ceasefire mechanism.

Page 70, CHAPTER VI, ARTICLE 64 - CEASEFIRE TEAM SITE GROUPS
363. The CTSGs provide SSCFC with situational awareness and serve as the first level of conflict resolution within the Mission. In recognition of the role that women must play in the peace and security process, women shall be included in all CTSGs.


Violence against women
Sexual violence
Page 46, CHAPTER IV, ARTICLE 44: SAFETY AND SECURITY
226. The Parties shall, with the support of UNAMID, provide security and protection from all forms of physical attack, all forms of sexual violence, exploitation, abduction, child recruitment, child labour, arbitrary detention, informal “taxation”, charging ransoms, and illegal confiscation of property and the GoS shall address the impact of such violations by taking the necessary steps to ensure effective and timely justice.

Gender-based violence/VAW (general)
Page 64, CHAPTER VI, ARTICLE 63: PROHIBITED ACTIVITIES AND POSITIVE UNDERTAKINGS
340. In accordance with this Agreement, the Parties agree to immediately cease and refrain from any:
...
ix. Acts and forms of gender-based violence and sexual exploitation;

Page 8, PREAMBLE
Condemning all acts of violence against civilians and the violations of human rights, in particular violence against women and children; and stressing the imperative to refrain from such acts of violence and violations of human rights and international humanitarian law;

Page 63, CHAPTER VI, ARTICLE 62
335. The imperative to refrain from all acts of violence against civilians, in particular vulnerable groups such as women and children, and from violations of human rights and international humanitarian law;
Protection (general)
Page 45, CHAPTER IV, ARTICLE 42 220. The adoption by the Parties of measures to ensure that IDPs, refugees and all other victims of conflict live in conditions of safety and dignity, and in full respect for their equal rights, in all phases of displacement, including prevention of all forms of forced displacement, protection and assistance during displacement and during voluntary return, resettlement and reintegration. Ensuring that humanitarian assistance is delivered to the affected people, especially women and children, undertaking to address the situation of the disabled among them and provide them with health and social services.

Page 77, CHAPTER VI, ARTICLE 68: DEMILITARISED ZONES AND BUFFER ZONES 405. The Parties reaffirm their commitment to: [...] v. Provide special protection for women, disabled persons, children including those associated with the armed forces and armed groups, and other persons with special needs.
Transitional justice
Past and gender
Page 65, CHAPTER VI, ARTICLE 63
341. The Parties further undertake to ensure:
...
ix. That all children, boys and girls, who are accused of crimes against international law after being unlawfully recruited by armed forces or armed groups are considered primarily as victims of violations against international law and not as alleged perpetrators.
Institutional reform
Emergency/criminal law/corruption reform
Page 65, CHAPTER VI, ARTICLE 63
341. The Parties further undertake to ensure:
...
ix. That all children, boys and girls, who are accused of crimes against international law after being unlawfully recruited by armed forces or armed groups are considered primarily as victims of violations against international law and not as alleged perpetrators.
Police
Page 85, CHAPTER VI, ARTICLE 74
455. The Parties agree to determine the number of male and female former combatants to be integrated in the SAF, the SPF and selected civil services on the basis of the verified number of the Movements' forces.

Page 79, CHAPTER VI, ARTICLE 70: SECURITY OF IDP CAMPS AND HUMANITARIAN OPERATIONS IN DARFUR
413. The GoS shall, in consultation with the DRA, recruit male and female volunteers from the local communities, IDPs and returning refugees into the Community Police, to participate in maintaining the security and safety of the IDPs' camps and voluntary return villages. The UNAMID shall contribute in training the community police.

Page 84, CHAPTER VI, ARTICLE 74: INTEGRATION OF FORMER COMBATANTS INTO THE SUDAN ARMED FORCES AND POLICE FORCES
446. Former combatants, male and female, who do not wish to join the Sudanese Armed Forces and Police Forces but expressed the desire to join the civil service, shall be referred to the NCSC as decided by the DDR Commission for assessment and placement.
DDR, army, parastatal or rebel forces
Page 64, CHAPTER VI, ARTICLE 63: PROHIBITED ACTIVITIES AND POSITIVE UNDERTAKINGS
340. In accordance with this Agreement, the Parties agree to immediately cease and refrain from any:
...
x. Recruitment and use of boys and girls under age 18 by armed forces and armed groups in hostilities, in accordance with Sudan’s obligations under the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict, and obligations under Protocol II (1977) of Geneva Conventions of 1949;

Page 65, CHAPTER VI, ARTICLE 63
341. The Parties further undertake to ensure:
...
iv. That the provisions of this Agreement are communicated, through the Parties’ chain of command, to all elements of their armed forces, and armed groups under their control or influence including women, and that all such forces and groups shall comply with those provisions.
...
viii. That all children, boys and girls, recruited by armed forces or armed groups, if any, are released unconditionally through the development of Action Plans;



Page 77, CHAPTER VI, ARTICLE 68: DEMILITARISED ZONES AND BUFFER ZONES
405. The Parties reaffirm their commitment to:
...
v. Provide special protection for women, disabled persons, children including those associated with the armed forces and armed groups, and other persons with special needs.

Page 80, CHAPTER VI, ARTICLE 72: DISARMAMENT, DEMOBILIZATION AND REINTEGRATION, AND
INTEGRATION OF FORMER COMBATANTS INTO THE SUDANESE ARMED FORCES AND POLICE FORCES
418. The Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR) and Integration-process shall take place within the designated assembly areas after phase III, with only those former combatants that have been verified as part of the Movements' forces. UNAMID, in consultation with the Movements, shall develop a plan for the assembly areas to include:
...
ii. Desired characteristics of the assembly areas, taking into account the specific needs of female former combatants;

Page 82, CHAPTER VI, ARTICLE 72
433. The Parties shall assemble their former combatants. However, care shall be taken for disarmament and demobilization to be done in accordance with the following:
...
v. The Parties shall begin, as a matter of priority, the process of demobilization and reintegration of special needs groups, which includes disabled ex-combatants and women.

Page 85, CHAPTER VI, ARTICLE 74
455. The Parties agree to determine the number of male and female former combatants to be integrated in the SAF, the SPF and selected civil services on the basis of the verified number of the Movements' forces.

Page 75-76, CHAPTER VI, ARTICLE 66 - PHASE TWO, DISARMAMENT OF ARMED MILITIA GROUPS
399.
...
The GoS shall be responsible for the disarmament of the armed militia. In this regard, the GoS shall present a comprehensive plan to the CFC for the disarmament and disbandment of armed militia, and for combating illegally armed persons, bandits and other outlaw groups both foreign and local operating in Darfur. The plan shall include measures to be taken to complete the exercise before the start of the integration phase. The plan shall also include measures for the rehabilitation and socio-economic reintegration of members of these disbanded groups, and the separation of men and women in assembly areas.

Page 83 CHAPTER VI, ARTICLE 73
438. It is imperative that social and economic reintegration of ex-combatants assures the participation of local communities and civil society organizations including women groups, towards enabling them to play their role in the sustainability of the social and economic reintegration of boys and girls associated with armed forces and armed groups and other vulnerable conflict affected children.

Page 83 CHAPTER VI, ARTICLE 73
439. Reintegration programmes must be inclusive to support boys and girls who have left armed forces or armed Movements through formal and informal processes, as well as other vulnerable conflict affected children in need of protection, such as girl mothers.

Page 83 CHAPTER VI, ARTICLE 73
440. Priority shall be to address the social and economic reintegration of Special Needs Groups such as women combatants and women associated with armed Movements, in particular widows, boys and girls associated with armed forces and armed Movements and other vulnerable conflict affected children, disabled combatants and the elderly.

Page 84, CHAPTER VI, ARTICLE 74: INTEGRATION OF FORMER COMBATANTS INTO THE SUDAN ARMED FORCES AND POLICE FORCES
446. Former combatants, male and female, who do not wish to join the Sudanese Armed Forces and Police Forces but expressed the desire to join the civil service, shall be referred to the NCSC as decided by the DDR Commission for assessment and placement.
Public administration
Page 17, CHAPTER II, ARTICLE 7: THE NATIONAL CIVIL SERVICE AND OTHER PUBLIC BODIES
52. The Panel shall identify any imbalances that have undermined the representation of the people of Darfur in the NCS, and shall make practical and action-oriented recommendations to address such imbalances and discrepancies in the NCS, including recommending appropriate measures to ensure fair representation for the people of Darfur in the service. The Panel is to be guided in its work by the following:
...
ii. Affirmative action in recruitment, training and promotion, including measures to promote gender balance.

Page 17, CHAPTER II, ARTICLE 7
54. Pending the outcome of the Panel's report, the GoS shall ensure that the following tasks are carried out:
...
ii. Reserve certain posts in the NCS exclusively for qualified women from Darfur;

Page 20, CHAPTER II, ARTICLE 10: THE ADMINISTRATIVE STATUS OF DARFUR - CONCURRENT COMPETENCIES
64. The DRA shall have concurrent competencies in policy making and coordination on the
following:
...
viii. Women advancement, motherhood and child care;
...
xi. Gender policy;

Page 85, CHAPTER VI, ARTICLE 74
455. The Parties agree to determine the number of male and female former combatants to be integrated in the SAF, the SPF and selected civil services on the basis of the verified number of the Movements' forces.

Page 84, CHAPTER VI, ARTICLE 74: INTEGRATION OF FORMER COMBATANTS INTO THE SUDAN ARMED FORCES AND POLICE FORCES
446. Former combatants, male and female, who do not wish to join the Sudanese Armed Forces and Police Forces but expressed the desire to join the civil service, shall be referred to the NCSC as decided by the DDR Commission for assessment and placement.
Development
General
Page 30, CHAPTER III, ARTICLE 19: MICRO-FINANCE SYSTEM
133. The MFS shall give particular importance to women’s income generating activities especially those of widows.

Page 31, CHAPTER III, ARTICLE 21
141. The functions of the Fund include, but are not limited to, the following tasks:
[...]
iii. Establishing financing mechanisms to meet the special needs of women, children and orphans. Such mechanisms shall include, but not be limited to, the provision of loans, investment opportunities, strengthening of productive capacities, production inputs and capacity building for women.

Page 34, CHAPTER III, ARTICLE 27: FISCAL ENTITLEMENTS OF DARFUR
162. A system of grants for specific purposes shall be established, with a view to realising the MDGs, alleviating poverty and realising gender equality.

Rehabilitation and reconstruction
Page 11, CHAPTER I - HUMAN RIGHTS AND FUNDAMENTAL FREEDOMS, ARTICLE 1: PROMOTION AND PROTECTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS AND FUNDAMENTAL FREEDOMS
11. The needs of women, children and vulnerable groups shall be given due attention in the Darfur early recovery, reconstruction, rehabilitation and education policies and programmes.
Page 81, CHAPTER VI, ARTICLE 72
429. Specific resources shall be mobilized and set aside to address the special reintegration needs of women.
Education
Page 14, CHAPTER II, ARTICLE 2
31. All levels of Government shall ensure the provision of continuing opportunities of general education, training and employment in public service to promote full and equal participation of the people of Darfur in advancing the nation's welfare. In this context, special attention shall be given to women and children in the field of education, capacity building and training. Training centres shall be established in urban and rural areas in collaboration with specialised international and regional organisations.

Page 25, CHAPTER III - WEALTH SHARING, GENERAL PROVISIONS, ARTICLE 16: PRINCIPLES FOR WEALTH SHARING
101. Human resources development shall constitute a means and objective for economic and social development policies. These policies shall be drawn up and implemented to develop the educational system and to secure access by the population of Darfur, without discrimination on the basis of race or gender, to equal opportunities to education and training within Darfur and the country. Special efforts shall be exerted to eliminate illiteracy among women.

Page 28, CHAPTER III, ARTICLE 17
117. Without prejudice to Article 14, policies shall be drawn up and implemented to develop the educational system and secure access by the population of Darfur, without discrimination on the basis of race or gender, to equal opportunities to education and training within the States of Darfur and the country. Special efforts shall be exerted to eliminate illiteracy among women.

Page 50, CHAPTER IV, ARTICLE 50
249. The Parties agree that the necessary conditions for return of IDPs and refugees are the following:
...
x. Provision of education and equal training for boys and girls including livelihoods training;

Health (general)
Page 45, CHAPTER IV, ARTICLE 42 220. The adoption by the Parties of measures to ensure that IDPs, refugees and all other victims of conflict live in conditions of safety and dignity, and in full respect for their equal rights, in all phases of displacement, including prevention of all forms of forced displacement, protection and assistance during displacement and during voluntary return, resettlement and reintegration. Ensuring that humanitarian assistance is delivered to the affected people, especially women and children, undertaking to address the situation of the disabled among them and provide them with health and social services.
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh