Tokyo Declaration Partnership for Self-Reliance in Afghanistan from Transition to Transformation (Tokyo Conference)

Country/entity
Afghanistan
Region
Europe and Eurasia
Agreement name
Tokyo Declaration Partnership for Self-Reliance in Afghanistan from Transition to Transformation (Tokyo Conference)
Date
08/07/2012
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Interstate/intrastate conflict(s) (Afghan Wars (1979 - )
The agreements are drawn from two distinct conflict periods. Post Soviet-intervention period. First, after an uprising against the communist government, the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan in December 1979 and set up a puppet government. Fierce resistance came in on the form of domestic and foreign Mujahidin fighters who, by 1988, forced the Soviet Union to withdraw. The Communist government that remained was defeated in 1992 against a background of violence, which spiralled into a tumultuous multi-party civil war with a strong tribal basis. In 1993 a peace accord was signed, but by 1994 the conflict realigned itself as the Islamic-based Taliban emerged from the refugee camps, eventually occupying the capital city of Kabul in September 1996 spurring groups that had militantly opposed the communist government to unite in opposition to the Taliban.

Post US-intervention period. After the terror attacks on September 11, 2001, the United States invaded Afghanistan and removed the Taliban from power. In December 2001, the UNSC mandated the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) to assist Afghanistan’s interim authorities. In 2003 ISAF command was placed under NATO’s responsibility. Within three years, however, the Taliban managed to re-group and re-structure and launched intense resistance to the internationally-recognized Afghanistan government and NATO support troops. Despite this resurgence of the Taliban, NATO leaders lacked the necessary support for the mission abroad, and NATO troops were withdrawn by the end of 2014.
Afghan Wars (1979 - ) )
Stage
Implementation/renegotiation (Addresses new or outstanding issues)
Conflict nature
Government
Peace process
2: Afghanistan: 2000s Post-intervention process
Parties
Not signed, agreement mentions the following parties as having produced it: The Afghan Government and the International Community (representatives from 55 countries and 25 international and other organizations from around the world)
Third parties
Ambassador Kazuo Kodama, Chargé d’affaires ad interim Permanent Mission of Japan to the United Nations
Description
This agreement extends and updates previous commitments made by the Government of Afghanistan and international donors. The areas of focus are: Security and Peace Process; Governance and Strategy for Economic Self-Reliance; Regional Cooperation; Private Sector and Civil Society; and contains an Annex titled 'Tokyo Mutual Accountability Framework'.

Agreement document
AF_120708_Tokyo Declaration.pdf

Main category
Page 2, Preamble, 2
...
Building on the long-held aspiration of the Afghan people, Afghanistan has laid down the foundations of the democratic system of government, including
...
enshrining a commitment to pluralism and human rights, in particular the equal rights of women

Page 2, Preamble, 3
With support from the International Community, Afghanistan will continue its progress on such issues as
...
protection of human rights in particular the rights of women and children

Page 4, Security and Peace Process, 7
...
The Participants reaffirmed the importance for Afghanistan to attain a fully professional, capable and accountable ANSF that protects the civilian population, in particular women and children, respects the Constitution, and observes Afghan and international laws.

Page 4, Security and Peace Process, 9
...
In this context, the Participants reiterated the importance of reconciliation principles such as the renunciation of violence, the breaking of ties to international terrorism and respect for the Afghan Constitution, including its human rights provisions, notably the rights of women
...
The Participants also stressed the importance of the participation of civil society organizations and women’s groups in support of the peace process and the culture of peace and human rights in Afghan society in particular in the light of the UN Security Council Resolution 1325.

Page 5, Governance and Strategy for Economic Self-Reliance, 12
...
The Afghan Government affirmed that the human rights and fundamental freedoms of its citizens, in particular the equality of men and women, are guaranteed under the Constitution and Afghanistan’s international human rights obligations. The Afghan Government committed to conducting free, fair, transparent, and inclusive elections in 2014 and 2015, in which all the people of Afghanistan participate freely without internal or external interference.

Page 7, Private Sector and Civil Society, 20
The Participants shared the view that developing a vibrant private sector will be essential for sustainable development of Afghanistan particularly for the long term; and that it requires the firm commitment of the Afghan Government to taking all steps necessary to achieve an enabling business environment, including establishing regulatory frameworks and building necessary infrastructure. The Participants noted the importance of promoting domestic and foreign investment in Afghanistan. The Participants also encouraged the creation of models for cross- country partnerships in investment whereby international investors can engage in partnership arrangements with those from within the region as well as with local Afghan entrepreneurs. In this context, the importance of job creation and initiatives targeting youth and women employment should be emphasized.

Page 7, Private Sector and Civil Society, 22
The Participants welcomed the results of the Delhi Investors’ Summit on Afghanistan hosted by the Confederation of Indian Industries on June 28 in Delhi, which benefitted from many participants from neighboring countries, and underscored the importance of implementing the recommendations of the summit. The Participants reaffirmed the significance of risk mitigation and credit provision schemes by the International Community in promoting private sector investment in Afghanistan. The International Community committed to taking concrete steps to promote private investment and trade by mobilizing relevant development finance institutions, export credit authorities, and other governmental and nongovernmental tools to encourage human and financial capital investments in Afghanistan. The Participants also reaffirmed the importance of women’s participation in private sector conferences as reinforcing the need for inclusive development and recognition of women’s rights.

Page 8, Private Sector and Civil Society, 23
The Participants emphasized the role of the Afghan civil society in advocating for and supporting human rights, good governance and sustainable social, economic and democratic development of Afghanistan through a sustained dialogue. The Participants reaffirmed that a thriving and free civil society based on respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, in particular the equality of men and women, enshrined in the Afghan Constitution, will be key to achieving a more pluralistic society in Afghanistan.

Page 9, Tokyo Mutual Accountability Framework, 6
As Afghanistan enters the Transformation Decade, progress from the past decade in areas that underpin sustained economic growth and development, especially for women and girls, such as education, health and other basic services, as well as strengthened respect for human rights, must continue. Challenges such as vulnerability to natural disasters and humanitarian needs must also be addressed jointly in an effective and appropriate manner in Transition and the Transformation Decade.

Page 10, Tokyo Mutual Accountability Framework, Mutual Commitments, 10
The Afghan Government and the International Community affirm that a functional democracy based on credible and inclusive elections, a professional and efficient civil service, access to justice and the rule of law are essential to a secure, just, stable and prosperous Afghanistan. Strengthened governance and institutions with a particular focus on the rights of women are prerequisites for strong and sustainable economic growth, employment generation and prosperity for the Afghan people.

Page 11, Tokyo Mutual Accountability Framework, Afghanistan Governance and Development Commitments, 11
...
Goal: Conduct credible, inclusive and transparent Presidential and Parliamentary elections in 2014 and 2015 according to the Afghan Constitution, in which eligible Afghan citizens, men and women, have the opportunity to participate freely without internal or external interference in accordance with the law.

Page 11, Tokyo Mutual Accountability Framework, Governance, Rule of Law and Human Rights, 11
...
Goal: Improve access to justice for all , in particular women, by ensuring that the Constitution and other fundamental laws are enforced expeditiously, fairly and transparently; ensure that women can fully enjoy their economic, social, civil, political and cultural rights; fight against corruption, including strengthening counter-narcotics efforts; and improve the capacity of state institutions. Indicators: Ensure respect for human rights for all citizens, in particular for women and children, and allow the Afghanistan Independent Human Rights Commission and civil society organizations to perform their appropriate functions; Demonstrated implementation, with civil society engagement, of both the Elimination of Violence Against Women Law (EVAW), including through services to victims as well as law enforcement, and the implementation of the National Action Plan for Women (NAPWA) on an annual basis;

Page 12, Tokyo Mutual Accountability Framework, Inclusive and Sustained Growth and Development, 11
...
Ensure adequate resource allocations to achieve Afghanistan’s Millennium Development Goal (MDG) targets for health, gender, education, environment and food security and use of MDG indicators to measure progress

Women, girls and gender

Participation
Effective participation
Page 7, Private Sector and Civil Society, Article 22
The Participants welcomed the results of the Delhi Investors’ Summit on Afghanistan hosted by the Confederation of Indian Industries on June 28 in Delhi, which benefitted from many participants from neighboring countries, and underscored the importance of implementing the recommendations of the summit. The Participants reaffirmed the significance of risk mitigation and credit provision schemes by the International Community in promoting private sector investment in Afghanistan. The International Community committed to taking concrete steps to promote private investment and trade by mobilizing relevant development finance institutions, export credit authorities, and other governmental and nongovernmental tools to encourage human and financial capital investments in Afghanistan. The Participants also reaffirmed the importance of women’s participation in private sector conferences as reinforcing the need for inclusive development and recognition of women’s rights.

Page 11, Annex II. Tokyo Mutual Accountability Framework, Afghanistan Governance and Development Commitments, Article 11
... Goal: Conduct credible, inclusive and transparent Presidential and Parliamentary elections in 2014 and 2015 according to the Afghan Constitution, in which eligible Afghan citizens, men and women, have the opportunity to participate freely without internal or external interference in accordance with the law.
Equality
Equality (general)
Page 2, Preamble, Article 2
... Building on the long-held aspiration of the Afghan people, Afghanistan has laid down the foundations of the democratic system of government, including
... enshrining a commitment to pluralism and human rights, in particular the equal rights of women

Page 5, Governance and Strategy for Economic Self-Reliance, Article 12
... The Afghan Government affirmed that the human rights and fundamental freedoms of its citizens, in particular the equality of men and women, are guaranteed under the Constitution and Afghanistan’s international human rights obligations. The Afghan Government committed to conducting free, fair, transparent, and inclusive elections in 2014 and 2015, in which all the people of Afghanistan participate freely without internal or external interference.

Page 8, Private Sector and Civil Society, Article 23
The Participants emphasized the role of the Afghan civil society in advocating for and supporting human rights, good governance and sustainable social, economic and democratic development of Afghanistan through a sustained dialogue. The Participants reaffirmed that a thriving and free civil society based on respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, in particular the equality of men and women, enshrined in the Afghan Constitution, will be key to achieving a more pluralistic society in Afghanistan.
Social equality
Page 7, Private Sector and Civil Society, Article 20
The Participants shared the view that developing a vibrant private sector will be essential for sustainable development of Afghanistan particularly for the long term; and that it requires the firm commitment of the Afghan Government to taking all steps necessary to achieve an enabling business environment, including establishing regulatory frameworks and building necessary infrastructure. The Participants noted the importance of promoting domestic and foreign investment in Afghanistan. The Participants also encouraged the creation of models for cross- country partnerships in investment whereby international investors can engage in partnership arrangements with those from within the region as well as with local Afghan entrepreneurs. In this context, the importance of job creation and initiatives targeting youth and women employment should be emphasized.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
General IHRL, IHL and IL
Page 2, Preamble, Article 2
... Building on the long-held aspiration of the Afghan people, Afghanistan has laid down the foundations of the democratic system of government, including
... enshrining a commitment to pluralism and human rights, in particular the equal rights of women

Page 2, Preamble, Article 3
With support from the International Community, Afghanistan will continue its progress on such issues as
... protection of human rights in particular the rights of women and children

Page 4, Security and Peace Process, Article 7
... The Participants reaffirmed the importance for Afghanistan to attain a fully professional, capable and accountable ANSF that protects the civilian population, in particular women and children, respects the Constitution, and observes Afghan and international laws.

Page 4, Security and Peace Process, Article 9
... In this context, the Participants reiterated the importance of reconciliation principles such as the renunciation of violence, the breaking of ties to international terrorism and respect for the Afghan Constitution, including its human rights provisions, notably the rights of women

Page 5, Governance and Strategy for Economic Self-Reliance, Article 12
... The Afghan Government affirmed that the human rights and fundamental freedoms of its citizens, in particular the equality of men and women, are guaranteed under the Constitution and Afghanistan’s international human rights obligations. The Afghan Government committed to conducting free, fair, transparent, and inclusive elections in 2014 and 2015, in which all the people of Afghanistan participate freely without internal or external interference.

Page 7, Private Sector and Civil Society, Article 22
... The Participants also reaffirmed the importance of women’s participation in private sector conferences as reinforcing the need for inclusive development and recognition of women’s rights.

Page 8, Private Sector and Civil Society, Article 23
The Participants emphasized the role of the Afghan civil society in advocating for and supporting human rights, good governance and sustainable social, economic and democratic development of Afghanistan through a sustained dialogue. The Participants reaffirmed that a thriving and free civil society based on respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, in particular the equality of men and women, enshrined in the Afghan Constitution, will be key to achieving a more pluralistic society in Afghanistan.

Page 9, Annex II. Tokyo Mutual Accountability Framework, Article 6
As Afghanistan enters the Transformation Decade, progress from the past decade in areas that underpin sustained economic growth and development, especially for women and girls, such as education, health and other basic services, as well as strengthened respect for human rights, must continue. Challenges such as vulnerability to natural disasters and humanitarian needs must also be addressed jointly in an effective and appropriate manner in Transition and the Transformation Decade.

Page 10, Annex II. Tokyo Mutual Accountability Framework, Mutual Commitments, Article 10
The Afghan Government and the International Community affirm that a functional democracy based on credible and inclusive elections, a professional and efficient civil service, access to justice and the rule of law are essential to a secure, just, stable and prosperous Afghanistan. Strengthened governance and institutions with a particular focus on the rights of women are prerequisites for strong and sustainable economic growth, employment generation and prosperity for the Afghan people.

Page 11, Annex II. Tokyo Mutual Accountability Framework, Governance, Rule of Law and Human Rights, Article 11
... Goal: Improve access to justice for all , in particular women, by ensuring that the Constitution and other fundamental laws are enforced expeditiously, fairly and transparently; ensure that women can fully enjoy their economic, social, civil, political and cultural rights; fight against corruption, including strengthening counter-narcotics efforts; and improve the capacity of state institutions. Indicators: Ensure respect for human rights for all citizens, in particular for women and children, and allow the Afghanistan Independent Human Rights Commission and civil society organizations to perform their appropriate functions; Demonstrated implementation, with civil society engagement, of both the Elimination of Violence Against Women Law (EVAW), including through services to victims as well as law enforcement, and the implementation of the National Action Plan for Women (NAPWA) on an annual basis;
International human rights standards
Page 11, Annex II. Tokyo Mutual Accountability Framework, Governance, Rule of Law and Human Rights, Article 11
... Goal: Improve access to justice for all , in particular women, by ensuring that the Constitution and other fundamental laws are enforced expeditiously, fairly and transparently; ensure that women can fully enjoy their economic, social, civil, political and cultural rights; fight against corruption, including strengthening counter-narcotics efforts; and improve the capacity of state institutions. Indicators: Ensure respect for human rights for all citizens, in particular for women and children, and allow the Afghanistan Independent Human Rights Commission and civil society organizations to perform their appropriate functions; Demonstrated implementation, with civil society engagement, of both the Elimination of Violence Against Women Law (EVAW), including through services to victims as well as law enforcement, and the implementation of the National Action Plan for Women (NAPWA) on an annual basis;
References to UNSC 1325 itself
Page 4, Security and Peace Process, Article 9
... The Participants also stressed the importance of the participation of civil society organizations and women’s groups in support of the peace process and the culture of peace and human rights in Afghan society in particular in the light of the UN Security Council Resolution 1325.
New institutions
Infrastructure (general)
Page 11, Annex II. Tokyo Mutual Accountability Framework, Governance, Rule of Law and Human Rights, Article 11
... Goal: Improve access to justice for all , in particular women, by ensuring that the Constitution and other fundamental laws are enforced expeditiously, fairly and transparently; ensure that women can fully enjoy their economic, social, civil, political and cultural rights; fight against corruption, including strengthening counter-narcotics efforts; and improve the capacity of state institutions. Indicators: Ensure respect for human rights for all citizens, in particular for women and children, and allow the Afghanistan Independent Human Rights Commission and civil society organizations to perform their appropriate functions; Demonstrated implementation, with civil society engagement, of both the Elimination of Violence Against Women Law (EVAW), including through services to victims as well as law enforcement, and the implementation of the National Action Plan for Women (NAPWA) on an annual basis;
Violence against women
Gender-based violence/VAW (general)
Page 11, Annex II. Tokyo Mutual Accountability Framework, Governance, Rule of Law and Human Rights, Article 11
... Goal: Improve access to justice for all , in particular women, by ensuring that the Constitution and other fundamental laws are enforced expeditiously, fairly and transparently; ensure that women can fully enjoy their economic, social, civil, political and cultural rights; fight against corruption, including strengthening counter-narcotics efforts; and improve the capacity of state institutions. Indicators: Ensure respect for human rights for all citizens, in particular for women and children, and allow the Afghanistan Independent Human Rights Commission and civil society organizations to perform their appropriate functions; Demonstrated implementation, with civil society engagement, of both the Elimination of Violence Against Women Law (EVAW), including through services to victims as well as law enforcement, and the implementation of the National Action Plan for Women (NAPWA) on an annual basis;
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
Constitution-making/reform
Page 11, Annex II. Tokyo Mutual Accountability Framework, Governance, Rule of Law and Human Rights, Article 11 ... Goal: Improve access to justice for all , in particular women, by ensuring that the Constitution and other fundamental laws are enforced expeditiously, fairly and transparently; ensure that women can fully enjoy their economic, social, civil, political and cultural rights; fight against corruption, including strengthening counter-narcotics efforts; and improve the capacity of state institutions. Indicators: Ensure respect for human rights for all citizens, in particular for women and children, and allow the Afghanistan Independent Human Rights Commission and civil society organizations to perform their appropriate functions; Demonstrated implementation, with civil society engagement, of both the Elimination of Violence Against Women Law (EVAW), including through services to victims as well as law enforcement, and the implementation of the National Action Plan for Women (NAPWA) on an annual basis;
Judiciary, judicial reform
Page 11, Annex II. Tokyo Mutual Accountability Framework, Governance, Rule of Law and Human Rights, Article 11
... Goal: Improve access to justice for all, in particular women, by ensuring that the Constitution and other fundamental laws are enforced expeditiously, fairly and transparently; ensure that women can fully enjoy their economic, social, civil, political and cultural rights; fight against corruption, including strengthening counter-narcotics efforts; and improve the capacity of state institutions. Indicators: Ensure respect for human rights for all citizens, in particular for women and children, and allow the Afghanistan Independent Human Rights Commission and civil society organizations to perform their appropriate functions; Demonstrated implementation, with civil society engagement, of both the Elimination of Violence Against Women Law (EVAW), including through services to victims as well as law enforcement, and the implementation of the National Action Plan for Women (NAPWA) on an annual basis;
DDR, army, parastatal or rebel forces
Page 4, Security and Peace Process, Article 7
... The Participants reaffirmed the importance for Afghanistan to attain a fully professional, capable and accountable ANSF that protects the civilian population, in particular women and children, respects the Constitution, and observes Afghan and international laws.
Public administration
Page 10, Annex II. Tokyo Mutual Accountability Framework, Mutual Commitments, Article 10
The Afghan Government and the International Community affirm that a functional democracy based on credible and inclusive elections, a professional and efficient civil service, access to justice and the rule of law are essential to a secure, just, stable and prosperous Afghanistan. Strengthened governance and institutions with a particular focus on the rights of women are prerequisites for strong and sustainable economic growth, employment generation and prosperity for the Afghan people.
Development
General
Page 9, Annex II. Tokyo Mutual Accountability Framework, Article 6
As Afghanistan enters the Transformation Decade, progress from the past decade in areas that underpin sustained economic growth and development, especially for women and girls, such as education, health and other basic services, as well as strengthened respect for human rights, must continue. Challenges such as vulnerability to natural disasters and humanitarian needs must also be addressed jointly in an effective and appropriate manner in Transition and the Transformation Decade.

Page 10, Annex II. Tokyo Mutual Accountability Framework, Mutual Commitments, Article 10
The Afghan Government and the International Community affirm that a functional democracy based on credible and inclusive elections, a professional and efficient civil service, access to justice and the rule of law are essential to a secure, just, stable and prosperous Afghanistan. Strengthened governance and institutions with a particular focus on the rights of women are prerequisites for strong and sustainable economic growth, employment generation and prosperity for the Afghan people.

Page 12, Annex II. Tokyo Mutual Accountability Framework, Inclusive and Sustained Growth and Development, Article 11
...
Ensure adequate resource allocations to achieve Afghanistan’s Millennium Development Goal (MDG) targets for health, gender, education, environment and food security and use of MDG indicators to measure progress.

Page 8, Private Sector and Civil Society, Article 23
The Participants emphasized the role of the Afghan civil society in advocating for and supporting human rights, good governance and sustainable social, economic and democratic development of Afghanistan through a sustained dialogue. The Participants reaffirmed that a thriving and free civil society based on respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, in particular the equality of men and women, enshrined in the Afghan Constitution, will be key to achieving a more pluralistic society in Afghanistan.
Rehabilitation and reconstruction
Page 7, Private Sector and Civil Society, Article 20
The Participants shared the view that developing a vibrant private sector will be essential for sustainable development of Afghanistan particularly for the long term; and that it requires the firm commitment of the Afghan Government to taking all steps necessary to achieve an enabling business environment, including establishing regulatory frameworks and building necessary infrastructure. The Participants noted the importance of promoting domestic and foreign investment in Afghanistan. The Participants also encouraged the creation of models for cross- country partnerships in investment whereby international investors can engage in partnership arrangements with those from within the region as well as with local Afghan entrepreneurs. In this context, the importance of job creation and initiatives targeting youth and women employment should be emphasized.

Page 7, Private Sector and Civil Society, Article 22
The Participants welcomed the results of the Delhi Investors’ Summit on Afghanistan hosted by the Confederation of Indian Industries on June 28 in Delhi, which benefitted from many participants from neighboring countries, and underscored the importance of implementing the recommendations of the summit. The Participants reaffirmed the significance of risk mitigation and credit provision schemes by the International Community in promoting private sector investment in Afghanistan. The International Community committed to taking concrete steps to promote private investment and trade by mobilizing relevant development finance institutions, export credit authorities, and other governmental and nongovernmental tools to encourage human and financial capital investments in Afghanistan. The Participants also reaffirmed the importance of women’s participation in private sector conferences as reinforcing the need for inclusive development and recognition of women’s rights.

Education
Page 9, Annex II. Tokyo Mutual Accountability Framework, Article 6
As Afghanistan enters the Transformation Decade, progress from the past decade in areas that underpin sustained economic growth and development, especially for women and girls, such as education, health and other basic services, as well as strengthened respect for human rights, must continue. Challenges such as vulnerability to natural disasters and humanitarian needs must also be addressed jointly in an effective and appropriate manner in Transition and the Transformation Decade.
Health (general)
Page 9, Tokyo Mutual Accountability Framework, 6
As Afghanistan enters the Transformation Decade, progress from the past decade in areas that underpin sustained economic growth and development, especially for women and girls, such as education, health and other basic services, as well as strengthened respect for human rights, must continue. Challenges such as vulnerability to natural disasters and humanitarian needs must also be addressed jointly in an effective and appropriate manner in Transition and the Transformation Decade.

Page 12, Annex II. Tokyo Mutual Accountability Framework, Inclusive and Sustained Growth and Development, Article 11
... Ensure adequate resource allocations to achieve Afghanistan’s Millennium Development Goal (MDG) targets for health, gender, education, environment and food security and use of MDG indicators to measure progress.

Implementation
No specific mention.
Other
No specific mention.

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