Framework Agreement on the Bangsamoro

Country/entity
Philippines
Mindanao
Region
Asia and Pacific
Agreement name
Framework Agreement on the Bangsamoro
Date
15/10/2012
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Philippine Insurgencies (1968 - )
The Maoist Insurgencies (1968 - )

Philippines-NDF

The Philippines have been defined by a series of center-periphery and often ideologically Maoist, separatist insurgencies. The Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP), began its war against the central Philippine government in 1968 through their armed wing – the New People’s Army (NPA). Further legitimacy was gained through the establishment of the National Democratic Front (NDF) in 1973. Grievances were predominantly opposed to the corruption and repression under the authoritarian Marcos regime.

Philippines-Cordillera

With the overthrow of Marcos’ regime in 1986, the CPP factionalized further to take on more localized characteristics. The Cordillera Peoples Liberation Army (CPLA) broke away from the NDF in 1986 to focus on the protection of the Cordilleran people and land in northern Luzon. Hostilities were formally ended in July 2011, with an agreement signed between the central government, the CPLA and the Cordillera Bodong Administration (CBA) that allowed for the absorption of CPLA fighters into the Philippine Army and the re-working of the CBA-CPLA into a socio-development organisation.

Philippines-RPM-P

Meanwhile, purge among the CPP in the early 1990s, encouraged the formation of a parallel party, the Revolutionary Workers Party (RPM-P). Their armed wing, the Alex Boncayao Brigade (ABB) which had carried out a number of assassinations during the 1980s at the bequest of the CPP, followed suit and allied themselves with the RPM-P in 1997 forming the (RPM-P-RPA-ABB). Severely weakened by the split with the CPP and with the arrest of several key figures, the RPM-P-RPA-ABB signed a peace agreement in December 2000, which encouraged the RPM-P’s branch in Mindanao to break away in 2001.

The CPP-NPA has only participated in intermittent talks with the government. Talks halted in 2004 when Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo’s administration sought closer ties with the U.S. in the war on terror and added the CPP-NPA to the list of terrorist organisations, renewing violence. Following the launch of a counter-insurgency by the Philippine government, negotiations have been further delayed due to suspected internal differences between the CPP ‘old guard’ and younger members.

The Moro Insurgency (1968 - )

Philippines-Mindanao

The Moro Insurgency began in 1968, in Mindanao and the Sulu archipelago after the killing of Moro Commandos, the so-called Jabidah Massacre, by the Philippine Army following a plot to invade Sabah province in Malaysia. The Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) captured a swath of territory in the mid-1970s. In an attempt to stem the violence, the constitution was reformed and Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) was created 1990 granting a devolution of power to the provinces of Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao, Sulu and Tawi-Tawi. Following the establishment of the ARMM, the MNLF splintered into a range of smaller groups including Islamic factions such as the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) and the Abu Sayef Goup (ASG). The Comprehensive Agreement on the Bangsamoro was signed in 2014.
Philippine Insurgencies (1968 - ) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - partial (Multiple issues)
Conflict nature
Government/territory
Peace process
97: Philippines - Mindanao process
Parties
Marvic M.V.F. Leonen, Panel Chairman on behalf of the Government of the Philippines;
Mohagher Iqbal, Panel Chairman on behalf of the Moro Islamic Liberation Front
Third parties
Tengku Dato’ Ab Ghafar Tengku Mohamed, Facilitator and Representative of Malaysia; Witnessed by: Benigno Simeon Aquino III, President of the Republic of the Philippines; Dato’Sri Hj. Mohd Najib Bin Tun Hj. Abdul Razak, Prime Minister of Malaysia; Al Haj Murad Ebrahim, Chairman of the Moro Islamic Liberation Front
Description
The Framework Agreement on the Bangsamoro establishes the Bangsamoro as the new autonomous political entity, providing for the creation of a Basic Law and the addition of basic rights to govern the entity, powers to be devolved, shared, or reserved between the Central Government and the Bangsamoro Government, and a transition period to implement the Agreement.

Agreement document
PH_121015_Framework Agreement on Bangsamoro.pdf

Main category
Page 9, VI. Basic Rights
1.g. Right of women to meaningful political participation, and protection of all forms of violence;
1.i. Right to equal opportunity and non-discrimination in social and economic activity and the public service, regardless of class, creed disability, gender and ethnicity.

Page 14, VIII. Normalization
11. The Parties recognize the need to attract multi-donor country support, assistance and pledges to the normalization process. For this process, a Trust Fund shall be established through which urgent support, recurrent and investment budget cost will be released with efficiency, transparency and accountability. The Parties agree to adopt criteria for eligible financing schemes, such as, priority areas of capacity building, institutional strengthening, impact programs to address imbalances in development and infrastructure, and economic facilitation for return to normal life affecting combatant and non-combatant elements of the MILF, indigenous peoples, women, children, and internally displaced persons.

Women, girls and gender

Participation
Effective participation
Page 9, VI. Basic Rights
...
1.g. Right of women to meaningful political participation, and protection of all forms of violence;
Equality
Equality (general)
Page 9, VI. Basic Rights
...
1.i. Right to equal opportunity and non-discrimination in social and economic activity and the public service, regardless of class, creed disability, gender and ethnicity.

Page 9, VI. Basic Rights 1.g. Right of women to meaningful political participation, and protection of all forms of violence;
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
Gender-based violence/VAW (general)
Page 9, VI. Basic Rights
...
1.g. Right of women to meaningful political participation, and protection of all forms of violence;
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
Development
Rehabilitation and reconstruction
Page 14, VIII. Normalization
11. The Parties recognize the need to attract multi-donor country support, assistance and pledges to the normalization process. For this process, a Trust Fund shall be established through which urgent support, recurrent and investment budget cost will be released with efficiency, transparency and accountability. The Parties agree to adopt criteria for eligible financing schemes, such as, priority areas of capacity building, institutional strengthening, impact programs to address imbalances in development and infrastructure, and economic facilitation for return to normal life affecting combatant and non-combatant elements of the MILF, indigenous peoples, women, children, and internally displaced persons.
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh