Agreement between the Government of Sudan and the Justice and Equality Movement-Sudan on the Basis of the Doha Document for Peace in Darfur

Country/entity
Sudan
Darfur
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Agreement between the Government of Sudan and the Justice and Equality Movement-Sudan on the Basis of the Doha Document for Peace in Darfur
Date
06/04/2013
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Sudan Conflicts (1955 - )
Agreements relate to several distinct dyads, and also the negotiated independence of South Sudan, and subsequent internal conflict in South Sudan. Sudan-South Sudan. The long-standing conflict between the north and the south of the country dates back to colonial times, where the British introduced a so-called ‘Southern Policy’, severely hampering population movements between these big regions. Immediately after gaining independence in 1956, southern movements started to fight for independence; this fight became professionalised in 1983 with the foundation of the soon internationally supported Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA). When the Islamic Front government introduced strict sharia laws in the south after it took over power in 1988 the war intensified. A decade later, the military situation reached a stalemate, enabling internationally facilitated peace negotiations to begin in 1997. After more fighting, a final negotiation push began in 2002, leading to the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Areement (CPA) in January 2005.

Sudan-South Sudan post referendum. South Sudan became independent in July 2011; since then, relations between the two countries are complicated and violent conflict led by the SPLM (North) in the Sudanese Nuba mountains region has since intensified.

Darfur. Other long-standing violent conflicts are in the east and the west of the country. In the east, the Beja Congress, established in 1957, is the spearhead of a currently ‘peaceful’ opposition movement. In the west, the violent conflict in Darfur intensified in the early 2000s and rapidly gained international attention, even resulting in genocide charges against leading figures of the Sudanese government. The situation on the ground is complex, with over a dozen organisations (most notably the Sudanese Liberation Movement and the Justice and Equality Movement) fighting the Sudanese government and allied groups like the Janjaweed – although all parties have switched sides on numerous occasions. Several mediation attempts have not been successful, due to the shaky commitment of the Sudanese central government and the distrust among the armed opposition.

South Sudan- internal. Post independence, conflict broke out between groups in South Sudan and agreements were reached addressing this conflict.

Sudan Conflicts (1955 - ) )
Stage
Implementation/renegotiation (Implementation modalities)
Conflict nature
Government/territory
Peace process
24: Darfur-Sudan peace process
Parties
For the Government of Sudan: Dr. Amin Hassan Omar, Minister of State in the Presidency;
For the Justice and Equality Movement-Sudan: Mr. Mohammad Bashar Ahmad, President;
Third parties
Witnessed by: For the State of Qatar: H.E. Ahmad bin Abdallah Al Mahmoud, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of State for Cabinet Affairs; For the AU-UN Mediation: H.E. Aichatou S. Mindaoudou, Deputy Joint Special Representative (Politcial); Mohamed Ibn Chambas, Joint Special Representative
Description
An agreement by the Parties that is based on the Doha Document for Peace in Darfur (DDPD), in which the parties adopt the DDPD and all of its annexes as integral part of this agreement. Furthermore, the agreement provides for human rights and fundamental freedoms, power sharing, wealth sharing, compensation and return of IDPs and refugees, security arrangements and a permanent ceasefire.

Agreement document
SD_130406_Sudan-JEMS Basis DDPD.pdf

Main category
Page 7, Article 13: Darfur Herders and Nomads Development Council
31. By virtue of this Agreement, a Darfur Herders and Nomads Development Council (DHNDC) shall be established under the DRA, with the strategic objective of creating an enabling environment to promote the activities of herders and nomads in order to contribute to economic growth, peaceful coexistence and stability in Darfur. The Council shall undertake the following functions:
...
iii. Address the specific needs of nomad women and empower them including through nomadic education

Page 8, Article 15: Social Welfare Fund
40. The Parties agree to establish a Social Welfare Fund under the DRA with the following objectives:
...
iii. Assist women, orphans, and people with special needs.

Women, girls and gender

Participation
No specific mention.
Equality
No specific mention.
Particular groups of women
Indigenous/nomadic women
Page 7, Article 13: Darfur Herders and Nomads Development Council
...
31. By virtue of this Agreement, a Darfur Herders and Nomads Development Council (DHNDC) shall be established under the DRA, with the strategic objective of creating an enabling environment to promote the activities of herders and nomads in order to contribute to economic growth, peaceful coexistence and stability in Darfur. The Council shall undertake the following functions:
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
No specific mention.
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
Development
General
Page 8, Article 15: Social Welfare Fund
...
40. The Parties agree to establish a Social Welfare Fund under the DRA with the following objectives:
...
iii. Assist women, orphans, and people with special needs.
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh