Agreement on the Reunification of the Sudan People's Liberation Movement (Arusha Agreement)

Country/entity
South Sudan
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Agreement on the Reunification of the Sudan People's Liberation Movement (Arusha Agreement)
Date
21/01/2015
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Sudan Conflicts (1955 - )
Agreements relate to several distinct dyads, and also the negotiated independence of South Sudan, and subsequent internal conflict in South Sudan. Sudan-South Sudan. The long-standing conflict between the north and the south of the country dates back to colonial times, where the British introduced a so-called ‘Southern Policy’, severely hampering population movements between these big regions. Immediately after gaining independence in 1956, southern movements started to fight for independence; this fight became professionalised in 1983 with the foundation of the soon internationally supported Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA). When the Islamic Front government introduced strict sharia laws in the south after it took over power in 1988 the war intensified. A decade later, the military situation reached a stalemate, enabling internationally facilitated peace negotiations to begin in 1997. After more fighting, a final negotiation push began in 2002, leading to the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Areement (CPA) in January 2005.

Sudan-South Sudan post referendum. South Sudan became independent in July 2011; since then, relations between the two countries are complicated and violent conflict led by the SPLM (North) in the Sudanese Nuba mountains region has since intensified.

Darfur. Other long-standing violent conflicts are in the east and the west of the country. In the east, the Beja Congress, established in 1957, is the spearhead of a currently ‘peaceful’ opposition movement. In the west, the violent conflict in Darfur intensified in the early 2000s and rapidly gained international attention, even resulting in genocide charges against leading figures of the Sudanese government. The situation on the ground is complex, with over a dozen organisations (most notably the Sudanese Liberation Movement and the Justice and Equality Movement) fighting the Sudanese government and allied groups like the Janjaweed – although all parties have switched sides on numerous occasions. Several mediation attempts have not been successful, due to the shaky commitment of the Sudanese central government and the distrust among the armed opposition.

South Sudan- internal. Post independence, conflict broke out between groups in South Sudan and agreements were reached addressing this conflict.

Sudan Conflicts (1955 - ) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - comprehensive (Agreement)
Conflict nature
Inter-group
Peace process
116: South Sudan post-secession process
Parties
Salva Kiir Mayardit the SPLM-in Government; Dr. Riek Machar Teny, SPLM-in Opposition, and Mr. Deng Alor Kuol, SPLM-Former Detainees.
Third parties
John Samuel Malecela, Vice Chairman of the Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM), and Abdulrahman Kinana, CCM General-Secretary.
Description
The Agreement provides substantial provisions for the merger of three factions of the Sudan People Liberation Movement touching of political, leadership, and organisational issues.

Agreement document
SS_150121_ArushaAgreement.pdf

Main category
Page 7, 23. The composition of the membership of the Political Bureau (PB) shall be reviewed and expanded to comprise 35 members to reflect the representation of the three SPLM Groups, equitable representation of the Slates, SPLM Women League, SPLM Youth League and SPLM Veterans League.

This paragraph is additionally listed in the Annex’ Implementation Matrix on Annex page 4. The Implementation Matrix also identifies the responsible actors and the targeted time frame for each task.

Women, girls and gender

Participation
Effective participation
Page 7,
23. The composition of the membership of the Political Bureau (PB) shall be reviewed and expanded to comprise 35 members to reflect the representation of the three SPLM Groups, equitable representation of the Slates, SPLM Women League, SPLM Youth League and SPLM Veterans League.
Equality
No specific mention.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
No specific mention.
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
Development
No specific mention.
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh