Communiqué of the International Conference on Reconstruction Assistance to Afghanistan (Tokyo Conference)

Country/entity
Afghanistan
Region
Europe and Eurasia
Agreement name
Communiqué of the International Conference on Reconstruction Assistance to Afghanistan (Tokyo Conference)
Date
22/01/2002
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Interstate/intrastate conflict(s) (Afghan Wars (1979 - )
The agreements are drawn from two distinct conflict periods. Post Soviet-intervention period. First, after an uprising against the communist government, the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan in December 1979 and set up a puppet government. Fierce resistance came in on the form of domestic and foreign Mujahidin fighters who, by 1988, forced the Soviet Union to withdraw. The Communist government that remained was defeated in 1992 against a background of violence, which spiralled into a tumultuous multi-party civil war with a strong tribal basis. In 1993 a peace accord was signed, but by 1994 the conflict realigned itself as the Islamic-based Taliban emerged from the refugee camps, eventually occupying the capital city of Kabul in September 1996 spurring groups that had militantly opposed the communist government to unite in opposition to the Taliban.

Post US-intervention period. After the terror attacks on September 11, 2001, the United States invaded Afghanistan and removed the Taliban from power. In December 2001, the UNSC mandated the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) to assist Afghanistan’s interim authorities. In 2003 ISAF command was placed under NATO’s responsibility. Within three years, however, the Taliban managed to re-group and re-structure and launched intense resistance to the internationally-recognized Afghanistan government and NATO support troops. Despite this resurgence of the Taliban, NATO leaders lacked the necessary support for the mission abroad, and NATO troops were withdrawn by the end of 2014.
Afghan Wars (1979 - ) )
Stage
Implementation/renegotiation (Implementation modalities)
Conflict nature
Government
Peace process
2: Afghanistan: 2000s Post-intervention process
Parties
Not signed, agreement mentions the following parties as having participated: Chairman of the Afghan Interim Administration, H.E. Mr. Hamid Karzai and other representatives of the Administration. Japan, the US, the EU and Saudi Arabia were the co-chairs of the Conference.
Third parties
Not signed, agreement mentions the following parties as having attended: H.E. Mr. Junichiro Koizumi, Prime Minister of Japan; H.E. Mr. Kofi Annan, UN Secretary General.
Description

Agreement document
AF_020122_TokyoConferenceSummaryConclusions.pdf

Main category
Page 2, 8
The AIA identified the following key priority areas for the reconstruction of their country:
...
(2) Education, especially for girls

Page 3, 12
The Conference emphasised the centrality of restoring the rights and addressing the needs of women, who have been the prime victims of conflict and oppression. Women’s rights and gender issues should be fully reflected in the reconstruction process.

Page 3, 13
...
The NGO representative reported that Afghan and international NGOs agreed that a focus on education and training is necessary, particularly for women, to build the capacity of the Afghan people to contribute to reconstruction. Continued dialogue and co-ordination between NGOs, international organisations, donors and the AIA are essential to ensure efficient use of resources.

Women, girls and gender

Participation
No specific mention.
Equality
No specific mention.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
General IHRL, IHL and IL
Page 3, Article 12
The Conference emphasised the centrality of restoring the rights and addressing the needs of women, who have been the prime victims of conflict and oppression. Women’s rights and gender issues should be fully reflected in the reconstruction process.
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
No specific mention.
Transitional justice
Past and gender
Page 3, Article 12
The Conference emphasised the centrality of restoring the rights and addressing the needs of women, who have been the prime victims of conflict and oppression. Women’s rights and gender issues should be fully reflected in the reconstruction process.
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
Development
Rehabilitation and reconstruction
Page 3, Article 12
The Conference emphasised the centrality of restoring the rights and addressing the needs of women, who have been the prime victims of conflict and oppression. Women’s rights and gender issues should be fully reflected in the reconstruction process.

Page 3, Article 13
...
The NGO representative reported that Afghan and international NGOs agreed that a focus on education and training is necessary, particularly for women, to build the capacity of the Afghan people to contribute to reconstruction. Continued dialogue and co-ordination between NGOs, international organisations, donors and the AIA are essential to ensure efficient use of resources.
Education
Page 2, Article 8
The AIA identified the following key priority areas for the reconstruction of their country:
...
(2) Education, especially for girls

Page 3, Article 13
...
The NGO representative reported that Afghan and international NGOs agreed that a focus on education and training is necessary, particularly for women, to build the capacity of the Afghan people to contribute to reconstruction. Continued dialogue and co-ordination between NGOs, international organisations, donors and the AIA are essential to ensure efficient use of resources.
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh