Luena Memorandum of Understanding (Addendum to the Lusaka Protocol for the Cessation of Hostilities and the Resolution of the Outstanding Military Issues under the Lusaka Protocol)

Country/entity
Angola
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Luena Memorandum of Understanding (Addendum to the Lusaka Protocol for the Cessation of Hostilities and the Resolution of the Outstanding Military Issues under the Lusaka Protocol)
Date
04/04/2002
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Angolan Civil War (1975 - 2002)
The conflict has involved political divisions, and agreements emanate from two dyads. Unita-dyad. Immediately following Angola’s independence in 1975, a civil war broke out between the two main armed independence movements, the (then government) Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA). The UN-mediated Lusaka Protocol in November 1994 did not end fighting and another attempt in 1998 failed due to continuous ceasefire violations. After internal splits and the killing of their founder Jonas Savimbi, UNITA was defeated by MPLA forces in 2002.

Cabinda dyad. Additionally, in the Cabinda enclave, the Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda (FLEC) fought a low intensity guerrilla warfare against the MPLA government since independence, but by the early 2000s, FLEC had lost significant operational power and in 2006 the group eventually declared a ceasefire.
Angolan Civil War (1975 - 2002) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - partial (Core issue)
Conflict nature
Government
Peace process
4: Angola: UNITA process
Parties
GENERAL OF THE ARMY, ARMANDO DA CRUZ NETO

Commander in Chief, UNITA, GENERAL GERALDO ABREU MUENGO
UCUATCHITEMBO "KAMORTEIRO"

Commander in Chief, UNITA ARMADAS ANGOLANAS

Third parties
ONU
IBRAHIM GAMBARI
UNDERSECRETARY GENERAL OF THE UN
AND SPECIAL ADVISOR FOR AFRICA
FOR THE OBSERVER COUNTRIES TO THE ANGOLAN PEACE PROCESS
CHRISTOPHER WILLIAM DELL
AMBASSADOR OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA IN ANGOLA
ANDREEV SERGUEI VADIMOVICH
AMBASSADOR OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION IN ANGOLA
FERNANDO MENDONÇA D'OLIVEIRA NEVES
AMBASSADOR OF THE PORTUGUESE REPUBLIC IN ANGOLA
Description
Signed after the killing of UNITA leader in February, this agreement provided for the establishment of a ceasefire, DDR of UNITA cadres and integration of UNITA cadres and officers into the Angolan Army, as well as reaffirming the fundamental principles of both parties and underlining the need for national reconciliation.

Agreement document
AO_020404_LuenaAgreement.pdf

Main category
Page 14, Annex 1,
1. Generalities related to quartering
... (iii) The quartering of UNITA Military Forces also implies on the one hand, the accommodation of 12 generals and 47 brigadier generals in cities close to the quartering areas. On the other hand, it also requires the organization and the arrangement of locations for the installation of military families near the quartering areas. The number of family members, including men, women and children could reach 300,000.

Women, girls and gender

Participation
No specific mention.
Equality
No specific mention.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
No specific mention.
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
DDR, army, parastatal or rebel forces
Page 14, Annex 1, 1. Generalities related to quartering
(iii) The quartering of UNITA Military Forces also implies on the one hand, the accommodation of 12 generals and 47 brigadier generals in cities close to the quartering areas. On the other hand, it also requires the organization and the arrangement of locations for the installation of military families near the quartering areas. The number of family members, including men, women and children could reach 300,000.
Development
No specific mention.
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh