Addis Ababa Agreement

Country/entity
Comoros
Anjouan
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Addis Ababa Agreement
Date
13/12/1997
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Interim arrangement
No
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Anjouan Crisis (1997 - 2008)
The two islands of Anjouan and Mohéli seceded from the Comoros in 1997, with Anjouan unilaterally declaring independence. In the aftermath of this declaration, political infighting emerged and several coup attempts in Anjouan took place. In 2001, a junta led my Mohamed Bacar was able to consolidate power and he began negotiations with the Comoros. These negotiations resulted in the establishment of a renewed Union of the Comoros with a peace agreement constitution. After the end of his formal term, Bacar launched another coup against his successor, declaring independence again in July 2007. In February 2008, the Comoros army, supported by France and members of the African Union, invaded the island and forced Bacar to leave and the declaration of independence to be withdrawn.


Anjouan Crisis (1997 - 2008) )
Stage
Pre-negotiation/process (Process)
Conflict nature
Government/territory
Peace process
15: Comoros-Anjouan islands peace process
Parties
The Comorian parties (the Government, Anjouan, Moheli and Grande Comore, and the Opposition: Forum/Federation/PRC and National Union for Development/National Front for Justice)

For the delegation of Ndzuwani (Anjouan):
Ali MOUMINE

For the delegation of Mwali (Moheli):
Mohamed FAZUL

For the delegation of Ngazidja (Grande Comore):
Ali Abdou EL ANIOU

For the delegation of the Opposition
Forum/Federation/PRC:
Moustoifa Said CHEIKH Mohamed Said MCHANGAMA

For the delegation of the National Union for Development/
National Front for Justice:
Ahmed Elarif HAMIDI Tolbrane HOUMADI

For the delegation of the Government: Mouzaoir ABDALLAH
Third parties
(a) The member States of the Central Organ of the OAU Mechanism for Conflict Prevention, Management and Resolution (Zimbabwe, Cameroon, Burkina Faso);
(b) The countries of the region (Kenya, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mozambique, Seychelles, South Africa and the United Republic of Tanzania);
(c) The permanent members of the Security Council (China, France, the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America);
(d) the League of Arab States;
(e) The United Nations;
(f) The European Union.

Signatories
For the Organization of African Unity:
Ambassador Pierre L. YERE Special Envoy of the Secretary-General of OAU to the Comoros
Description
Through this agreement, parties (1) request the establishment of an international commission of inquiry for crimes committed during the crisis; (2) call for an Inter-Island Comorian Conference with a view to defining a new institutional framework meeting the legitimate aspirations of the Comorians; (3) and agree to establish a commission in charge of implementing the Agreement.

Agreement document
KM_971213_AddisAbabaAgreement.pdf []

Groups

Children/youth
No specific mention.
Disabled persons
No specific mention.
Elderly/age
No specific mention.
Migrant workers
No specific mention.
Racial/ethnic/national group
No specific mention.
Religious groups
No specific mention.
Indigenous people
No specific mention.
Other groups
No specific mention.
Refugees/displaced persons
No specific mention.
Social class
No specific mention.

Gender

Women, girls and gender
No specific mention.
Men and boys
No specific mention.
LGBTI
No specific mention.
Family
No specific mention.

State definition

State definition
Nature of state (general)
Page 1, Article 3:
The Comorian parties agreed to hold, as soon as possible, under the auspices of OAU and according to the format of the Addis Ababa International Conference, an Inter-Island Comorian Conference with a view to defining a new institutional framework meeting the legitimate aspirations of the Comorians. In this regard, the Comorian parties noted the firm position expressed by OAU, the United Nations, the League of Arab States and the European Union on the unity and territorial integrity of the Comoros.

Governance

Political institutions (new or reformed)
No specific mention.
Constitution's affirmation/renewal
No specific mention.
Constitutional reform/making
No specific mention.
Elections
No specific mention.
Electoral commission
No specific mention.
Political parties reform
No specific mention.
Civil society
No specific mention.
Traditional/religious leaders
No specific mention.
Public administration
No specific mention.

Power sharing

Political power sharing
No specific mention.
Territorial power sharing
No specific mention.
Economic power sharing
No specific mention.
Military power sharing
No specific mention.

Human rights and equality

Human rights/RoL
No specific mention.
Equality
No specific mention.
Democracy
No specific mention.
Protection measures
No specific mention.
Human rights framework
No specific mention.
Civil and political rights
No specific mention.
Socio-economic rights
No specific mention.
NHRI
No specific mention.
Regional or international human rights institutions
No specific mention.
Mobility/access
No specific mention.
Detention procedures
No specific mention.
Media and communication
No specific mention.
Citizenship
No specific mention.

Justice sector reform

Criminal justice and emergency law
No specific mention.
State of emergency provisions
No specific mention.
Judiciary and courts
No specific mention.
Prisons and detention
No specific mention.
Traditional Laws
No specific mention.

Socio-economic reconstruction

Development or socio-economic reconstruction
No specific mention.
National economic plan
No specific mention.
Natural resources
No specific mention.
International funds
Page 2, Article 6:
The Comorian parties took note with satisfaction of the decision of OAU, in cooperation with the international community, particularly the United Nations, the League of Arab States and the European Union, to convene a round table of donors with a view to mobilizing international assistance for the development of the Comoros. In the meantime, they appeal for urgent assistance to the Comoros.
Business
No specific mention.
Taxation
No specific mention.
Banks
No specific mention.

Land, property and environment

Land reform/rights
No specific mention.
Pastoralist/nomadism rights
No specific mention.
Cultural heritage
No specific mention.
Environment
No specific mention.
Water or riparian rights or access
No specific mention.

Security sector

Security Guarantees
No specific mention.
Ceasefire
No specific mention.
Police
No specific mention.
Armed forces
No specific mention.
DDR
No specific mention.
Intelligence services
No specific mention.
Parastatal/rebel and opposition group forces
No specific mention.
Withdrawal of foreign forces
No specific mention.
Corruption
No specific mention.
Crime/organised crime
No specific mention.
Drugs
No specific mention.
Terrorism
No specific mention.

Transitional justice

Transitional justice general
No specific mention.
Amnesty/pardon
No specific mention.
Courts
No specific mention.
Mechanism
Page 1, Article 2:
The Comorian parties pondered the situation existing in their country, particularly the crisis in Anjouan and Moheli. In that regard, they deeply regretted the military actions carried out in the two islands of Anjouan and Moheli, as well as the loss of human lives, injuries and destruction of property. Consequently, they requested the establishment of an international commission of inquiry, which would be requested to identify the responsibilities, evaluate the damage caused on the two islands during the crisis and propose measures likely to enable the victims to obtain the necessary compensation.
Prisoner release
No specific mention.
Vetting
No specific mention.
Victims
Page 1, Article 2:
The Comorian parties pondered the situation existing in their country, particularly the crisis in Anjouan and Moheli. In that regard, they deeply regretted the military actions carried out in the two islands of Anjouan and Moheli, as well as the loss of human lives, injuries and destruction of property. Consequently, they requested the establishment of an international commission of inquiry, which would be requested to identify the responsibilities, evaluate the damage caused on the two islands during the crisis and propose measures likely to enable the victims to obtain the necessary compensation.

Missing persons
No specific mention.
Reparations
Material reparations
Page 1, Article 2:
The Comorian parties pondered the situation existing in their country, particularly the crisis in Anjouan and Moheli. In that regard, they deeply regretted the military actions carried out in the two islands of Anjouan and Moheli, as well as the loss of human lives, injuries and destruction of property. Consequently, they requested the establishment of an international commission of inquiry, which would be requested to identify the responsibilities, evaluate the damage caused on the two islands during the crisis and propose measures likely to enable the victims to obtain the necessary compensation.
Reconciliation
No specific mention.

Implementation

UN signatory
With the participation of official observers, representing: … (e) The United Nations
Other international signatory
(a) The member States of the Central Organ of the OAU Mechanism for Conflict Prevention, Management and Resolution (Zimbabwe, Cameroon, Burkina Faso);
(b) The countries of the region (Kenya, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mozambique, Seychelles, South Africa and the United Republic of Tanzania);
(c) The permanent members of the Security Council (China, France, the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America);
(d) the League of Arab States;
(e) The United Nations;
(f) The European Union.

Signatories:
For the Organization of African Unity:
Ambassador Pierre L. YERE Special Envoy of the Secretary-General of OAU to the Comoros
Referendum for agreement
No specific mention.
International mission/force/similar
Page 1, Article 3:
The Comorian parties agreed to hold, as soon as possible, under the auspices of OAU and according to the format of the Addis Ababa International Conference, an Inter-Island Comorian Conference with a view to defining a new institutional framework meeting the legitimate aspirations of the Comorians. In this regard, the Comorian parties noted the firm position expressed by OAU, the United Nations, the League of Arab States and the European Union on the unity and territorial integrity of the Comoros.

Page 2, Article 5:
The Comorian parties agreed to establish a commission in charge of implementing the Agreement, comprising the representatives of all the Comorian parties to the International Conference and chaired by OAU.

Page 2, Article 6:
The Comorian parties took note with satisfaction of the decision of OAU, in cooperation with the international community, particularly the United Nations, the League of Arab States and the European Union, to convene a round table of donors with a view to mobilizing international assistance for the development of the Comoros. In the meantime, they appeal for urgent assistance to the Comoros.
Enforcement mechanism
Page 2, Article 5:
The Comorian parties agreed to establish a commission in charge of implementing the Agreement, comprising the representatives of all the Comorian parties to the International Conference and chaired by OAU.

The University of Edinburgh