Agreement on Peace, Friendship and Comprehensive Cooperation Between the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia and the State of Eritrea

Country/entity
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Agreement on Peace, Friendship and Comprehensive Cooperation Between the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia and the State of Eritrea
Date
16/09/2018
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Interstate/interstate conflict (Eritrean Border Conflicts (1998 - 2018)
Eritrean Border Conflicts (1998 - 2019)

Eritrea - Ethiopia (1998 - 2018)

In 1991, the Eritrean People’s Liberation Front (EPLF) defeated the communist military junta (‘Derg’) in Ethiopia and proclaimed independence for Eritrea. At the same time, Derg itself was overthrown by the Ethiopian Peoples’ Revolutionary Democratic Forces (EPRDF), which established a transitional government in Ethiopia. Eritrea was granted an independence referendum, which resulted in a 99.8 per cent pro-independence vote. However, border tensions and heavy disputes, in particular on minority rights and economic issues, between EPLF and EPRDF led to new fighting between the two countries in 1998. A mediation by the US administration led to a difficult truce and in 2000 a peace agreement was signed. The agreement established two commission, Border Commission and the Claims Commission. The delimitation ruling of the Border Commission was rejected by Ethiopia. The border continued to be heavily occupied by troops on both sides and border skirmishes continue into 2016. In June 2018, after a series of summits, the state of war was declared over in a Joint Declaration of Peace and Friendship, as Ethiopia finally agreed to honour the ruling of the Border Commission. This followed by a series of steps to improve political, economic and diplomatic ties. Transport and telephone links have been re-established, and borders reopened. In July 2018, the countries have signed the ‘Agreement on Peace, Friendship and Comprehensive Cooperation’ reiterating their commitment to achieving long-lasting peace in the region.



Sudanese-Eritrean Relations (1994 - 1999)

Eritrea broke diplomatic contact with neighbouring Sudan after accusing the country of attempting to destabilize the Eritrean regime. At the time it was believed that Sudan trained and armed the Eritrean Islamic Jihad Group, which aimed to establish a caliphate in the Horn of Africa. After breaking diplomatic relations, Khartoum accused Eritrea of providing support for armed Sudanese opposition groups. Indeed, Eritrea help a conference for the Sudanese opposition in 1995 in an attempt to unite them. Relations were normalized in 1999. Sudan sent troops to its eastern border (region of Kassala) with Eritrea amid security concerns involving Egyptian troops deployed in Eritrea.
Eritrean Border Conflicts (1998 - 2018) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - comprehensive (Agreement)
Conflict nature
Territory
Peace process
37: Eritrea-Ethiopia border dispute peace process
Parties
The State of Eritrea, President Isaias Afwerki;
The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed Ali
Third parties
Description
The agreement states that the war between the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia and the State of Eritrea has ended, and the two parties agree to cooperate in several areas going forward.

Agreement document
EH_ER_180916_Agreement on Peace, Friendship and Comprehensive Cooperation.pdf []

Groups

Children/youth
No specific mention.
Disabled persons
No specific mention.
Elderly/age
No specific mention.
Migrant workers
No specific mention.
Racial/ethnic/national group
No specific mention.
Religious groups
No specific mention.
Indigenous people
No specific mention.
Other groups
No specific mention.
Refugees/displaced persons
No specific mention.
Social class
No specific mention.

Gender

Women, girls and gender
No specific mention.
Men and boys
No specific mention.
LGBTI
No specific mention.
Family
No specific mention.

State definition

State definition
Nature of state (general)
Page 1, Preamble
Respecting each other's independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity;
Border delimitation
Page 1, Article 4
The two countries will implement the Eritrea-Ethiopia Boundary Commission decision.

Governance

Political institutions (new or reformed)
No specific mention.
Constitution's affirmation/renewal
No specific mention.
Constitutional reform/making
No specific mention.
Elections
No specific mention.
Electoral commission
No specific mention.
Political parties reform
No specific mention.
Civil society
No specific mention.
Traditional/religious leaders
No specific mention.
Public administration
No specific mention.

Power sharing

Political power sharing
No specific mention.
Territorial power sharing
No specific mention.
Economic power sharing
No specific mention.
Military power sharing
No specific mention.

Human rights and equality

Human rights/RoL
No specific mention.
Equality
No specific mention.
Democracy
No specific mention.
Protection measures
No specific mention.
Human rights framework
No specific mention.
Civil and political rights
No specific mention.
Socio-economic rights
No specific mention.
NHRI
No specific mention.
Regional or international human rights institutions
No specific mention.
Mobility/access
No specific mention.
Detention procedures
No specific mention.
Media and communication
No specific mention.
Citizenship
No specific mention.

Justice sector reform

Criminal justice and emergency law
No specific mention.
State of emergency provisions
No specific mention.
Judiciary and courts
No specific mention.
Prisons and detention
No specific mention.
Traditional Laws
No specific mention.

Socio-economic reconstruction

Development or socio-economic reconstruction
Socio-economic development
Page 1, Article 3
The two countries will develop Joint investment Projects, including the establishment of Joint Special Economic Zones.
National economic plan
No specific mention.
Natural resources
No specific mention.
International funds
No specific mention.
Business
No specific mention.
Taxation
No specific mention.
Banks
No specific mention.

Land, property and environment

Land reform/rights
No specific mention.
Pastoralist/nomadism rights
No specific mention.
Cultural heritage
Intangible
Page 1, Preamble
Considering the close bonds of geography, history, culture, and religion between the two countries and their peoples;
Promotion
Page 1, Article 2
The two countries will promote comprehensive cooperation in the political, security, defense, economic, trade, investment, cultural and social fields on the basis of complementarity and synergy.
Environment
No specific mention.
Water or riparian rights or access
No specific mention.

Security sector

Security Guarantees
No specific mention.
Ceasefire
No specific mention.
Police
No specific mention.
Armed forces
No specific mention.
DDR
No specific mention.
Intelligence services
No specific mention.
Parastatal/rebel and opposition group forces
No specific mention.
Withdrawal of foreign forces
No specific mention.
Corruption
No specific mention.
Crime/organised crime
Page 1, Article 6
The two countries will combat terrorism as well as trafficking in people, arms and drugs in accordance with international covenants and conventions.
Drugs
Page 1, Article 6
The two countries will combat terrorism as well as trafficking in people, arms and drugs in accordance with international covenants and conventions.
Terrorism
Page 1, Article 6
The two countries will combat terrorism as well as trafficking in people, arms and drugs in accordance with international covenants and conventions.

Transitional justice

Transitional justice general
No specific mention.
Amnesty/pardon
No specific mention.
Courts
No specific mention.
Mechanism
No specific mention.
Prisoner release
No specific mention.
Vetting
No specific mention.
Victims
No specific mention.
Missing persons
No specific mention.
Reparations
No specific mention.
Reconciliation
No specific mention.

Implementation

UN signatory
No specific mention.
Other international signatory
No specific mention.
Referendum for agreement
No specific mention.
International mission/force/similar
No specific mention.
Enforcement mechanism
Page 2, Article 7
The two countries will establish a High-Level Joint Committee, as well as Sub-committees as required, to guide and oversee the implementation of this Agreement.

The University of Edinburgh