Kafanchan Peace Declaration between Grazers and Farmers

Country/entity
Nigeria
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Kafanchan Peace Declaration between Grazers and Farmers
Date
23/03/2016
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/local conflict (Nigerian Civil War (1967), Delta Unrest (1990 - ), Communal Conflicts (1978 - ), and Boko Haram Insurgency (2009 - )
Since 1960 when Nigeria became independent, it has seen a number of coup d’etats and instability. In 1967, after confederation plans for the Nigerian regions to gain more independence failed, the Eastern region seceded as the Republic of Biafra and this caused the Nigerian Civil War. The conflict resulted from political, economic, ethnic and religious tensions which had existed since before Britain drew new borders when colonising the area. The discovery of oil in the Niger Delta heightened the intensity of the conflict. With the aid of British forces, the Nigerian military managed to take back the territory in 1970. Since then, ethnic violence has persisted.

Nigerian Delta Unrest (1990 - )
Conflict in the Niger Delta arose in the 1990s between foreign oil companies and ethnic groups which felt exploited after being forced to abandon their land. The Nigerian military caused international consternation in 1995 when members of the Ogoni tribe of the Niger Delta were found hanged without due process. The proliferation of arms in the region has encouraged the rise of armed groups which have targeted oil companies and pipelines. This came to a head in 2004 when Shell withdrew personnel from two oil fields in response to attacks on wells and pipelines by rebels. The military have attempted to clamp down on militant groups in the Niger Delta but it was not until the establishment of the Presidential amnesty program in 2009 which required the surrender of weapons by militants in exchange for amnesty. In 2016 a new militant group called the Niger Delta Avengers has announced its existence in the Niger Delta illustrating the continued instability in that region.

Boko Haram Insurgency (2009 - )
Sectarian violence has also been rife in Nigeria and since 2002, the radical Islamist group Boko Haram have been violently seeking to establish sharia law throughout Nigeria and an Islamic caliphate in the Northern part of the country. In 2009 they began an official insurgency which spread to Cameroon, Chad and Niger. In 2014 the group kidnapped 276 girls from a college in Chibok and bombed the town of Jos. The insurgency is the result of Muslim – Christian tensions in the country which is a constant source of instability and violence. In 2015 the military led a regional coalition of forces on a counter-offensive against Boko Haram and they were successful in taking ground. There are also conflicts between Fulani herdsmen and Christian peasants in the Middle belt. Widespread corruption and lack of state authority exacerbate these many complex tensions.

Central Nigerian communal conflicts (1978 - )
Unrest in Nigeria is a product of socio-economic pressures between migrating herdsmen and settled agriculturists, exacerbated by firearms proliferation, ethnic conflict, sectarianism and banditry. Since 2001, attacks have adopted a more sectarian character involving suicide bombings and shooting at churches by the jihadist group, Boko Haram. Peaks of violence occurred in 2004 and 2011, patoral/farmer conflict has resulted in the deaths of thousands since the Fourth Nigerian Republic was founded in 1999. The Land Use Act of 1978, exacerbated conflict by allowing longtime occupants 'indigeneship' and the ability to apply for a certificate of occupancy, putting migrating communities at a disadvantage.
Nigerian Civil War (1967), Delta Unrest (1990 - ), Communal Conflicts (1978 - ), and Boko Haram Insurgency (2009 - ) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - comprehensive (Agreement)
Conflict nature
Inter-group
Peace process
121: Nigeria - local agreements
Parties
Agreement describes signatoriess as: Founding Signatories: Comprising representatives of the communities of five Local Government Areas (LGA’s) of Southern Kaduna; Sanga, Kachia, Kaura, Zangon Kataf and Jema’a who participated in the making of this Declaration and who accept responsibility for upholding its terms.

Witnesses: Comprising people in any organizational, official or personal capacities who wish to record that they were present at and personally witnessed the signing on March 23rd 2016.

Joining signatories: Comprising representatives from other communities, groups, or individuals in Kaduna State who wish to embrace this Declaration and share in the responsibilities of furthering its objectives and terms. Signatories in this category may join at any time in procedures to be established by the Founding Signatories.

Welcoming signatories: Comprising any other people, anywhere in Nigeria or internationally, who wish to acknowledge this Declaration and welcome its objectives and terms. Signatories in this category may join at any time in procedures to be established by the Founding Signatories.


KAFANCHAN PEACE DECLARATION AND SIGNATURE PAGE OF THE FIVE (5) FLASHPOINT LGAS OF SOUTHERN KADUNA, KADUNA STATE.

JEMA'A LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA

NAME
Bajju
1 Samuel Yakubu Ninvio
2 Chief Dakachi Diem Antho
3 Bulus Haruna
4 Mrs. Janet James
5 Reva Cassimir M. Yabo
6 Mr. Greqorv Namadi

Fantswam
1 Mammuda Z. Habu
2 Chief Ayuba Yava
3 Mr. Joseph Yakusa
4 Esther M. Adamu
5 Rev. Joshua Chechet
6 John B. Awodi

Fulani
1 Alh. Haruna Usman
2 Ardo Sulaiman Yashi
3 Abdufhamid Musa
4 Maryam Suleiman
5 Abubkar S. Sadia
6 Ardo Abubakar Gamba

Gwona
1 Hon . Hus saini Doqara
2 Sen. Babale Maikarfi
3 Paul M. Bonnet
4 Hon. Naomi Waziri
5 Mai. Gen. Adamu Dveri Rt

Hausa
1 Danjuma Musa
Alh. Garba Abdullahi
2 Maisukuni
3 Alh. Kabir Abdu
4 Maimuna G. Abdullahi
5 Alh. Kabir Marni Kasim
6 Alh. Haruna Saluhu

labo
1 Chief Chibu-eze Akpu
5 Hon. Christopher Oriala

Kaninkon
1 Alh. Ismail Suleiman
2 William B. Gimba
3 Willisi Sati
4 Monica A Tete
5 Pastor lshaku Maman
6 Samuel B. Tete

Kachia Local Government Area

Adara
1 Norman Shekarau
2 Stephen A. Garba
3 Yusuf Kaura
4 Hauwa Kadarko
5 Rev. Peter Kimbe
6 Stephen Yakubu

Bajju
1 Mr. Musa Adwak
2 Mr. Sani Tawai
3 Raphael Augustine Dogo
4 Mrs. Victoria Anthony
5 Rev. Jesse M allam
6 Mr. Goliath Gandu

Fulani
1 Adamu Dauda
2 Ardo Ayuba Hassan
3 Alh. Ardo Konkwa
4 Hajiya Karimat u Wakili Mu Mallam Usman Garba
5 Mohammed
6 Alh. Yusuf Usman

Hausa
1. Alh. Rabiu Suleiman
2 Sabiu Suleiman
3 Alh. Sirajo Jibrin
4 Malama Bilkisu Bako
5 Mal. Idris Yunusa
6 Alh. Ibrahim Alkasim

Jaba
1 Mr. Danladi Dare
2 Wakili Danjuma Amana
3 Mr. Daniel Shehu
4 Mrs. Theresa Bala
5 Rev. Habila Yohanna
6 Mr. Gabriel Adamu

lkulu
1 Emmanuel Ayuba
2 lshaya Bulus
3 Yakubu Dodo

Kuturmi
1 Capt . Christopher Maidawa
2 Mr. Samaila Danfu lani
3 Mr. Sunday Yakubu
4 Mrs. Christiana A. Joseph
5 Rev. Ayuba Dagon Yaro
6 Yohanna Danfulan i

Kaura Local Government Area

Fulani
1 Ardo Alhaji Hari
2 Ardo Bayero Ahmadu
3 Alh. Abubakar Nasiru Nace
4 Hajiya Zainab Adamu
5 Abdullahi Bayero
6 Malam Musa Abubakar










Hausa
1 Kasimu Abubakar (Chr)
2 Mustapha Muhammadu
3 Alh. Dahiru Mu'azu
4 Maryam Sa'adu
5 Shehu Danjuma
6 Ahmed Haruna

lgbo
1 Chief Sunday Ezekiel

Kagoro
1 Philip N. Suku (Chr)
2 David P. Datiyong
3 Andrew Simon Kazah
4 Mrs. Kande lshaya
5 Rev. Joshua Z. Yamang
6 Ajim Bonatson

Sholio {Moro'a)
1 Naman lshaya Auta
2 Mr. Shehu Abui (Chr)
3 Gideon Laaki Ninyio
4 Mary Julius
5 Rev. Goar
6 Thomas D. Kazah

Takad
1 Ignatius Raymond
2 Mr. Alphonsus Ngu B.
3 Mr. Raphael Soja
4 Angelina I. Boye
5 Rev. lrimiya Zango
6 Rtd. Pastor Joseph Bak.ugde

Sanga Local Government Area

Ayu
1 Mal. Labaran Hassan (C
2 Rtd. lnp Danjuma Garba
3 Dauda Aliyu Abdullahi
4 Ma l am a Salamatu Isa
5 Rev. DadutJohn
6 Mal Musa Abubakar

Fulani
1 Alh. Alhassan Abdulkari
2 Ardo Abdulrahman Ya'u
3 Malam Usman Sa'idu
4 Hajiya Hairu Yakubu
5 Abdullahi Mohammad
6 Alh. Dere Kantoma Wak

Gwandara
1 Mr. Danjuma Yakubu
2 Mal Bala Adawet
3 Mal Bala Zakariah (Chr)
4 Mrs. Christiana Bitrus
5 Rev. Danladi Agbun Danboyi
6 Mr. Yohanna Madaki

Hausa
1 Mal Aliyu Adamu
2 Hon Alh. Salau Babale
3 Mal Bala Aminu
4 Malama Binta Mohammed
5 Mal Musa Abdullahi
6 Yahaya Barau (Chr)

Mada
1 Mr. Daniel Jatau
2 Mr. John Lange
3 Mr. Amos Waziri
4 Mrs. Gloria Monday
5 Rev. Yakubu Bulus
6 Hon Bitrus Danboy Dogari

Nandu
1 Mr. Nuhu Tukura
2 Rtd . Pastor Yohanna Aloko
3 Mr. Ruben Lawal '
4 Mrs. Jumai Danladi
5 Rev Danladi Ali
6 M r . Danladi Adamu (Chr)










Ninzo
1 Abdullahi Nuhu
2Mal Aminu Abdullahi














3 Elisha Aku
4 Christie E. Musa
5 Ali Y. Jetau
6 Mr. Joel Adamu Mande (Chr)

Numana
1 Mr. Gambo A. Danjuma (Chr)
2 Chief Jibrin S. Kogi
3 Barr. I.B. Yakubu
4 Mrs. Comfort Habila
5 Rev. Isa Tanko
6 Rtd. C.S.C. Adamu Shamaki
Third parties
Description
Agreements dealing with inter-communal clashes over cattle, and use of small arms.

Agreement document
NG_160316_Kafanchan Peace Declaration between Grazers and Farmers.pdf

Main category
Page 15, Section XI, Article ii
Support inclusion of farmer/grazer women in local level peace-building.


Page 16, Section XIII, Article iii
Improve representation of women, youth and persons with disability in efforts to address inter communal conflict and commit to ensure gender inclusion elements across all activities in the implementation plans of this Declaration.

Women, girls and gender

Participation
Other
Page 15, Section XI, Article ii [Support inclusion of farmer/grazer women in local level peace-building.]
Equality
No specific mention.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
No specific mention.
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
Development
No specific mention.
Implementation
Women's role and consideration in implementation of the agreement
Page 16, Section XIII, Article iii [Improve representation of women, youth and persons with disability in efforts to address inter communal conflict and commit to ensure gender inclusion elements across all activities in the implementation plans of this Declaration.]
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh